Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting

Abstract

The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential. Here we review recent progress and open challenges in predicting physicochemical properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting applications using first-principles-based approaches, and highlights the key role of these calculations in interpreting increasingly complex experiments.

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Figure 1: Two alternative mechanisms for water dissociation at surface oxygen bridges, as observed in the first-principles simulations of the full interface of liquid water with InP(001), when a submonolayer surface oxide is present.
Figure 2: Level alignment at the rutile TiO2(110)/water interface at the point of zero proton charge and flatband potential, as computed using DFT with semi-local (PBE and BLYP) and hybrid (HSE06) density functionals.
Figure 3: Valence band maxima (filled rectangles) and conduction band minima (open rectangles) of the Si(111) surface functionalized with various groups, as computed with the GW approximation.
Figure 4: Relative position of the conduction band minimum of WO3 (ECBM) and the Fermi level (EF) of IrO2, in the absence of water (left panel), and in the presence of water in contact with the absorber and the catalyst at the same time (right panel).

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the NSF-CCI grant (CHE-1305124). Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. T.A.P. acknowledges support from the Lawrence Fellowship. We thank B. Wood, T. Ogitsu and E. Schwegler for useful discussions.

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Correspondence to Tuan Anh Pham or Yuan Ping or Giulia Galli.

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Pham, T., Ping, Y. & Galli, G. Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting. Nature Mater 16, 401–408 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4803

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