We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.
Your institute does not have access to this article
Open Access articles citing this article.
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering Open Access 15 March 2021
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Irvine, A. D., McLean, W. H. & Leung, D. Y. Filaggrin mutations associated with skin and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 1315–1327 (2011).
Schon, M. P., Boehncke, W. H. & Brocker, E. B. Psoriasis: clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives. Discov. Med. 5, 253–258 (2005).
Schon, M. P. & Boehncke, W. H. Psoriasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1899–1912 (2005).
Bieber, T. Atopic dermatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 358, 1483–1494 (2008).
Yosipovitch, G. & Bernhard, J. D. Clinical practice. Chronic pruritus. N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 1625–1634 (2013).
Gilchrest, B. A. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 21, 610–613 (1989).
Balin, A. K. & Pratt, L. A. Physiological consequences of human skin aging. Cutis 43, 431–436 (1989).
Anderson, R. R. Lasers for dermatology and skin biology. J. Invest. Dermatol. 133, E21–E23 (2013).
Rushmer, R. F., Buettner, K. J., Short, J. M. & Odland, G. F. The skin. Science 154, 343–348 (1966).
Kim, D. H., Xiao, J., Song, J., Huang, Y. & Rogers, J. A. Stretchable, curvilinear electronics based on inorganic materials. Adv. Mater. 22, 2108–2124 (2010).
Rogers, J. A., Someya, T. & Huang, Y. Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics. Science 327, 1603–1607 (2010).
Jang, K.-I. et al. Soft network composite materials with deterministic and bio-inspired designs. Nature Commun. 6, 6566 (2015).
Mitragotri, S., Blankschtein, D. & Langer, R. Ultrasound-mediated transdermal protein delivery. Science 269, 850–853 (1995).
Kost, J., Mitragotri, S., Gabbay, R. A., Pishko, M. & Langer, R. Transdermal monitoring of glucose and other analytes using ultrasound. Nature Med. 6, 347–350 (2000).
Xu, S. et al. Soft microfluidic assemblies of sensors, circuits, and radios for the skin. Science 344, 70–74 (2014).
Clark, R. A., Ghosh, K. & Tonnesen, M. G. Tissue engineering for cutaneous wounds. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127, 1018–1029 (2007).
Meddahi-Pellé, A. et al. Organ repair, hemostasis, and in-vivo bonding of medical devices by aqueous solutions of nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 6369–6373 (2014).
Davis, S. C. et al. The healing effect of over-the-counter (OTC) wound healing agents applied under semi-occlusive film dressing. Br. J. Dermatol. 172, 544–546 (2015).
Borde, A. et al. Increased water transport in PDMS silicone films by addition of excipients. Acta Biomater. 8, 579–588 (2012).
Hammock, M. L., Chortos, A., Tee, B. C., Tok, J. B. & Bao, Z. 25th anniversary article: the evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Adv. Mater. 25, 5997–6038 (2013).
Webb, R. C. et al. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin. Nature Mater. 12, 938–944 (2013).
Linear Polydimethylsiloxanes CAS No. 63148-62-9 (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 2011).
Lewis, L. N., Stein, J., Gao, Y., Colborn, R. E. & Hutchins, G. Platinum catalysts used in the silicones industry. Their synthesis and activity in hydrosilylation. Platinum Met. Rev. 41, 66–75 (1997).
Annaidh, A. N., Bruyere, K., Destrade, M., Gilchrist, M. D. & Ottenio, M. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical properties of excised human skin. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 5, 139–148 (2012).
Agache, P. G., Monneur, C., Leveque, J. L. & Rigal, J. D. Mechanical properties and Young’s modulus of human skin in vivo. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221–232 (1980).
Hendriks, F. M. et al. A numerical-experimental method to characterize the non-linear mechanical behaviour of human skin. Skin Res. Technol. 9, 274–283 (2003).
Manschot, J. F. & Brakkee, A. J. The measurement and modelling of the mechanical properties of human skin in-vivo–II. The model. J. Biomech. 19, 517–521 (1986).
Diridollou, S. et al. In vivo model of the mechanical properties of the human skin under suction. Skin Res. Technol. 6, 214–221 (2000).
Cua, A. B., Wilhelm, K. P. & Maibach, H. I. Elastic properties of human skin: relation to age, sex, and anatomical region. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 282, 283–288 (1990).
Kraft, J. N. & Lynde, C. W. Moisturizers: what they are and a practical approach to product selection. Skin Ther. Lett. 10, 1–8 (2005).
Boyer, G. et al. Assessment of the in-plane biomechanical properties of human skin using a finite element model updating approach combined with an optical full-field measurement on a new tensile device. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 27, 273–282 (2013).
Pedersen, L. & Jemec, G. B. Mechanical properties and barrier function of healthy human skin. Acta Derm. Venereol. 86, 308–311 (2006).
Gniadecka, M. & Serup, J. in Handbook of Noninvasive Methods and the Skin (eds Serup, J. & Jemec, G. B. E.) 329–335 (CRC Press, 2006).
The authors thank G. Grove and Z. D. Draelos for their helpful discussions and M. Su for her assistance with the in vivo use studies.
All of the authors hold a financial interest in Living Proof and/or Olivo Labs.
About this article
Cite this article
Yu, B., Kang, SY., Akthakul, A. et al. An elastic second skin. Nature Mater 15, 911–918 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4635
Multifunctional bacterial cellulose-gelatin containing mangosteen extract films with improved antibacterial and anticancer properties
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering (2021)
Imperfection sensitivity of mechanical properties in soft network materials with horseshoe microstructures
Acta Mechanica Sinica (2021)
Archives of Dermatological Research (2021)
Journal of Materials Science (2019)