Orbital symmetry of charge-density-wave order in La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 and YBa2Cu3O6.67

Abstract

Recent theories of charge-density-wave (CDW) order in high-temperature superconductors have predicted a primarily d CDW orbital symmetry. Here, we report on the orbital symmetry of CDW order in the canonical cuprate superconductors La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 (LBCO) and YBa2Cu3O6.67 (YBCO), using resonant soft X-ray scattering and a model mapped to the CDW orbital symmetry. From measurements sensitive to the O sublattice, we conclude that LBCO has predominantly s′ CDW orbital symmetry, in contrast to the d orbital symmetry recently reported in other cuprates. Furthermore, we show for YBCO that the CDW orbital symmetry differs along the a and b crystal axes and that these both differ from LBCO. This work highlights CDW orbital symmetry as an additional key property that distinguishes the different cuprate families. We discuss how the CDW symmetry may be related to the ‘1/8–anomaly’ and to static spin ordering.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Scattering geometry and schematics of CDW order.
Figure 2: Resonant scattering from CDW order on the O and Cu sublattices of LBCO.
Figure 3: Cu sublattice scattering in YBCO.
Figure 4: Photon energy dependence of scattering from O and O sublattices.

References

  1. 1

    Tranquada, J. M., Sternlieb, B. J., Axe, J. D., Nakamura, Y. & Uchida, S. Evidence for stripe correlations of spins and holes in copper oxide superconductors. Nature 375, 561–563 (1995).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Kohsaka, Y. et al. An intrinsic bond-centered electronic glass with unidirectional domains in underdoped cuprates. Science 315, 1380–1385 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Wu, T. et al. Magnetic-field-induced charge-stripe order in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy . Nature 477, 191–194 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Ghiringhelli, G. et al. Long-range incommensurate charge fluctuations in (Y, Nd)Ba2Cu3O6+x . Science 337, 821–825 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Chang, J. et al. Direct observation of competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 . Nature Phys. 8, 871–876 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Achkar, A. J. et al. Distinct charge orders in the planes and chains of ortho-III-ordered YBa2Cu3O6+δ superconductors identified by resonant elastic X-ray scattering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 167001 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Blackburn, E. et al. X-ray diffraction observations of a charge-density-wave order in superconducting ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals in zero magnetic field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 137004 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Comin, R. et al. Charge order driven by Fermi-arc instability in Bi2Sr2−xLaxCuO6+δ . Science 343, 390–392 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    da Silva Neto, E. H. et al. Ubiquitous interplay between charge ordering and high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates. Science 343, 393–396 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Vojta, M. Lattice symmetry breaking in cuprate superconductors: stripes, nematics, and superconductivity. Adv. Phys. 58, 699–820 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Lawler, M. J. et al. Intra-unit-cell electronic nematicity of the high-Tc copper-oxide pseudogap states. Nature 466, 347–351 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Li, J.-X., Wu, C.-Q. & Lee, D.-H. Checkerboard charge density wave and pseudogap of high-T c cuprate. Phys. Rev. B 74, 184515 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Seo, K., Chen, H.-D. & Hu, J. d-wave checkerboard order in cuprates. Phys. Rev. B 76, 020511 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Vojta, M. & Rösch, O. Superconducting d-wave stripes in cuprates: valence bond order coexisting with nodal quasiparticles. Phys. Rev. B 77, 094504 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Metlitski, M. A. & Sachdev, S. Quantum phase transitions of metals in two spatial dimensions. II. Spin density wave order. Phys. Rev. B 82, 075128 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Sachdev, S. & La Placa, R. Bond order in two-dimensional metals with antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027202 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Efetov, K. B., Meier, H. & Pépin, C. Pseudogap state near a quantum critical point. Nature Phys. 9, 442–446 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Atkinson, W. A., Kampf, A. P. & Bulut, S. Charge order in the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors. New J. Phys. 17, 013025 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Fujita, K. et al. Direct phase-sensitive identification of a d-form factor density wave in underdoped cuprates. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 20166–E3032 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Allais, A., Bauer, J. & Sachdev, S. Density wave instabilities in a correlated two-dimensional metal. Phys. Rev. B 90, 155114 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Chowdhury, D. & Sachdev, S. Density-wave instabilities of fractionalized Fermi liquids. Phys. Rev. B 90, 245136 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Comin, R. et al. Symmetry of charge order in cuprates. Nature Mater. 14, 796–800 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Hücker, M. et al. Stripe order in superconducting La2−xBaxCuO4 (0.095 ≤ x ≤ 0.155). Phys. Rev. B 83, 104506 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Fujita, K. et al. Simultaneous transitions in cuprate momentum-space topology and electronic symmetry breaking. Science 344, 612–616 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Hücker, M. et al. Competing charge, spin, and superconducting orders in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy . Phys. Rev. B 90, 054514 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Blanco-Canosa, S. et al. Resonant X-ray scattering study of charge-density wave correlations in YBa2Cu3O6+x . Phys. Rev. B 90, 054513 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Achkar, A. J. et al. Resonant X-ray scattering measurements of a spatial modulation of the Cu 3d and O 2p energies in stripe-ordered cuprate superconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 017001 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Fujita, K. et al. Spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy studies of electronic structure in the superconducting and pseudogap phases of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 81, 011005 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Wise, W. D. et al. Charge-density-wave origin of cuprate checkerboard visualized by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Nature Phys. 4, 696–699 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Yamada, K. et al. Doping dependence of the spatially modulated dynamical spin correlations and the superconducting-transition temperature in La2−xSrxCuO4 . Phys. Rev. B 57, 6165–6172 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Kampf, A. P., Scalapino, D. J. & White, S. R. Stripe orientation in an anisotropic tJ model. Phys. Rev. B 64, 052509 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Blanco-Canosa, S. et al. Momentum-dependent charge correlations in YBa2Cu3O6+δ superconductors probed by resonant X-ray scattering: evidence for three competing phases. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 187001 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Comin, R. et al. Broken translational and rotational symmetry via charge stripe order in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+y . Science 347, 1335–1339 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Abbamonte, P. et al. Spatially modulated ‘Mottness’ in La2−xBaxCuO4 . Nature Phys. 1, 155–158 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Fink, J. et al. Charge ordering in La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 studied by resonant soft X-ray diffraction. Phys. Rev. B 79, 100502 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Wu, H.-H. et al. Charge stripe order near the surface of 12-percent doped La2−xSrxCuO4 . Nature Commun. 3, 1023 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Benjamin, D., Abanin, D., Abbamonte, P. & Demler, E. Microscopic theory of resonant soft-X-ray scattering in materials with charge order: the example of charge stripes in high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 137002 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Sachdev, S. Colloquium: order and quantum phase transitions in the cuprate superconductors. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 913–932 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Christensen, N. B. et al. Nature of the magnetic order in the charge-ordered cuprate La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197003 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Fischer, M. H., Wu, S., Lawler, M., Paramekanti, A. & Kim, E.-A. Nematic and spin-charge orders driven by hole-doping a charge-transfer insulator. New J. Phys. 16, 093057 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Yamakawa, Y. & Kontani, H. Spin-fluctuation-driven nematic charge-density wave in cuprate superconductors: impact of Aslamazov–Larkin vertex corrections. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 257001 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Chowdhury, D. & Sachdev, S. Feedback of superconducting fluctuations on charge order in the underdoped cuprates. Phys. Rev. B 90, 134516 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Lee, P. A. Amperean pairing and the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors. Phys. Rev. X 4, 031017 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Meier, H., Pépin, C., Einenkel, M. & Efetov, K. B. Cascade of phase transitions in the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Phys. Rev. B 89, 195115 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Pépin, C., de Carvalho, V. S., Kloss, T. & Montiel, X. Pseudogap, charge order, and pairing density wave at the hot spots in cuprate superconductors. Phys. Rev. B 90, 195207 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Wang, Y. & Chubukov, A. Charge-density-wave order with momentum (2Q, 0 and (0,2Q) within the spin-fermion model: continuous and discrete symmetry breaking, preemptive composite order, and relation to pseudogap in hole-doped cuprates. Phys. Rev. B 90, 035149 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    Hawthorn, D. G. et al. An in-vacuum diffractometer for resonant elastic soft X-ray scattering. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073104 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    Grafe, H.-J. et al. Charge order and low frequency spin dynamics in lanthanum cuprates revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 188, 89–101 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge insightful discussions with S. Sachdev, J. C. Davis, W. A. Atkinson, G. A. Sawatzky, R. Comin and A. Damascelli. This work was supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Research described in this paper was performed at the Canadian Light Source, which is funded by the CFI, the NSERC, the National Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Government of Saskatchewan, Western Economic Diversification Canada, and the University of Saskatchewan. J.G. and M.Z. were supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG) through the Emmy-Noether (GE1647/2-1) and the D-A-CH programme (GE 1647/3-1). The work at Brookhaven National Labs was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

A.J.A. and D.G.H. analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. D.G.H., A.J.A., J.G. and M.H. conceived of the experiments that A.J.A., F.H., R.S., C.M., M.Z. and D.G.H. performed. M.H., J.G. and G.D.G. provided the LBCO crystals and R.L., D.A.B. and W.N.H. provided the YBCO crystal.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. G. Hawthorn.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information (PDF 5523 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Achkar, A., He, F., Sutarto, R. et al. Orbital symmetry of charge-density-wave order in La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 and YBa2Cu3O6.67. Nature Mater 15, 616–620 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4568

Download citation

Further reading