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Self-assembly of a sulphur-terminated graphene nanoribbon within a single-walled carbon nanotube

Abstract

The ability to tune the properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) through modification of the nanoribbon’s width and edge structure1,2,3 widens the potential applications of graphene in electronic devices4,5,6. Although assembly of GNRs has been recently possible, current methods suffer from limited control of their atomic structure7,8,9,10,11,12,13, or require the careful organization of precursors on atomically flat surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions14. Here we demonstrate that a GNR can self-assemble from a random mixture of molecular precursors within a single-walled carbon nanotube, which ensures propagation of the nanoribbon in one dimension and determines its width. The sulphur-terminated dangling bonds of the GNR make these otherwise unstable nanoribbons thermodynamically viable over other forms of carbon. Electron microscopy reveals elliptical distortion of the nanotube, as well as helical twist and screw-like motion of the nanoribbon. These effects suggest novel ways of controlling the properties of these nanomaterials, such as the electronic band gap and the concentration of charge carriers.

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Figure 1: Guest molecules encapsulated within a carbon nanotube can be transformed into a 1D structure under the influence of heat or an electron beam.
Figure 2: Carbon nanotubes serve as containers and nanoreactors for molecules.
Figure 3: Structure and properties of sulphur-terminated nanoribbon.
Figure 4: Dynamic behaviour of the nanoribbon inside the nanotube.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by by the DFG (German Research Foundation) and the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts (MWK) of Baden-Württemberg in the frame of the SALVE (Sub Angstrom Low-Voltage Electron microscopy project) and by the DFG within the research project SFB 569 (U.K. and J.B.); the EPSRC (Career Acceleration Fellowship), NanoTP COST action and High Performance Computing (HPC) facility at the University of Nottingham (E.B.); the EPSRC, ESF and the Royal Society (A.N.K. and A.C.); the FP7 Marie Curie Fellowship (M.C.G-L.); and the Nottingham Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Centre (access to Raman spectrometer).

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Contributions

A.C. and J.B. carried out transmission electron microscopy experiments (Ulm University) and image analysis. E.B. and N.K. performed theoretical modelling. M.C.G-L. and T.W.C. synthesized materials. G.A.R. carried out Raman spectroscopy measurements. U.K. contributed to the development of the experimental methodology and the discussion of the results. A.N.K. proposed the chemical structure of nanoribbon and the pathway of its formation, and wrote the original manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to A. N. Khlobystov.

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Chuvilin, A., Bichoutskaia, E., Gimenez-Lopez, M. et al. Self-assembly of a sulphur-terminated graphene nanoribbon within a single-walled carbon nanotube. Nature Mater 10, 687–692 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat3082

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