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Morphology-dependent zeolite intergrowth structures leading to distinct internal and outer-surface molecular diffusion barriers

Abstract

Zeolites play a crucial part in acid–base heterogeneous catalysis. Fundamental insight into their internal architecture is of great importance for understanding their structure–function relationships. Here, we report on a new approach correlating confocal fluorescence microscopy with focused ion beam–electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy lamelling and diffraction, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study a wide range of coffin-shaped MFI-type zeolite crystals differing in their morphology and chemical composition. This powerful combination demonstrates a unified view on the morphology-dependent MFI-type intergrowth structures and provides evidence for the presence and nature of internal and outer-surface barriers for molecular diffusion. It has been found that internal-surface barriers originate not only from a 90 mismatch in structure and pore alignment but also from small angle differences of 0.5–2 for particular crystal morphologies. Furthermore, outer-surface barriers seem to be composed of a silicalite outer crust with a thickness varying from 10 to 200 nm.

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Figure 1: Internal architecture and crystallographic orientations of MFI-type zeolite crystals.
Figure 2: Statistical analysis of the relationship between morphology and internal architecture.
Figure 3: Schematic representation of the proposed evolution of MFI-type crystal growth.
Figure 4: TEM lamella preparation and analysis.
Figure 5: Visualization of the distinct internal diffusion barriers.
Figure 6: AFM and XPS characterization of the zeolite surface.

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Acknowledgements

We thank NWO (VICI, VENI and TOP grants) for financial support and a large investment subsidy for the Dualbeam microscope. The authors thank A. W. Burton and S. I. Zones (Chevron) for discussions and M. Versluijs-Helder for SEM-EDX.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

L.K. carried out the confocal fluorescence and AFM measurements and statistical analysis of the morphology/internal-architecture relation, and contributed to the analysis of the TEM lamella and writing of the manuscript. M.H.F.K. worked on the acquiring of the FIB-EBSD data and carried out the staining experiments as well as TEM and XPS data analysis and writing of the manuscript. D.A.M.W. carried out the FIB-EBSD experiments and prepared the TEM lamella. M.R.D. carried out the EBSD data analysis, TEM lamella experiments and TEM data analysis. J.D.M. carried out the TEM lamella experiments. E.S. participated in the manuscript preparation. W.S., M.M. and N.J. synthesized and provided zeolite samples. P.C. and M.A. contributed to the AFM measurements, crystal growth analysis and discussion on the AFM results. A.C., N.K. and S.R.B. developed and carried out the XPS measurements. J.K. synthesized and provided zeolite samples and contributed to the manuscript preparation. B.M.W. designed and directed the research, as well as contributing to the preparation and writing of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bert M. Weckhuysen.

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Karwacki, L., Kox, M., Matthijs de Winter, D. et al. Morphology-dependent zeolite intergrowth structures leading to distinct internal and outer-surface molecular diffusion barriers. Nature Mater 8, 959–965 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2530

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