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Organic thin-film electronics from vitreous solution-processed rubrene hypereutectics

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Abstract

Electronic devices based on single crystals of organic semiconductors provide powerful means for studying intrinsic charge-transport phenomena and their fundamental electronic limits1,2,3,4. However, for technological exploitation, it is imperative not to be confined to the tedious growth and cumbersome manipulation of molecular crystals—which generally show notoriously poor mechanical properties—but to be able to process such materials into robust architectures by simple and efficient means. Here, we advance a general route for facile fabrication of thin-film devices from solution. The key beneficial feature of our process—and the principal difference from existing vapour deposition5,6,7 and solution-processing schemes7,8,9,10—is the incorporation of a glass-inducing diluent that enables controlled crystallization from an initial vitreous state of the organic semiconductor, formed in a selected area of the phase diagram of the two constituents. We find that the vitrifying diluent does not adversely affect device performance. Indeed, our environmentally stable, discrete rubrene-based transistors rival amorphous silicon devices, reaching saturated mobilities of up to 0.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, ON–OFF ratios of ≥106 and subthreshold slopes as steep as 0.5 V per decade. A nearly temperature-independent device mobility, indicative of a high crystalline quality of our solution-processed, rubrene-based films11, corroborates these findings. Inverter and ring-oscillator structures are also demonstrated.

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Acknowledgements

We are indebted to our colleagues at Philips, S. Setayesh and E. Cantatore, for discussions. K. Pernstich and D. Gundlach (ETH Zürich) provided invaluable and highly critical data regarding vacuum-evaporated rubrene devices, for which we are deeply grateful. M. Beenhakkers (Philips) prepared the test devices for the present work. C.T. would like to thank the DPI for financial support. Furthermore, the EUROSCORES SONS is acknowledged for support. N.S. is very grateful to the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science for a post-doctoral fellowship in the framework of the EU research programme IHP.

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Correspondence to Natalie Stingelin-Stutzmann.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1426

Further reading

Figure 1: Procedure for fabricating, from solution, crystalline organic thin films by exploiting the phase behaviour of the active, semiconductive species ii (here, rubrene, 2) and a ‘glass-inducing’ diluent iv (here, 5,12-diphenylanthracene, 1).
Figure 2: DSC, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), for hypereutectic 1,2-mixtures of a glass-forming composition with maximum rubrene content (50–55 wt%).
Figure 3: Optical microscopy of hypereutectic rubrene-based architectures.
Figure 4: Device performance of discrete and integrated FETs.