Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.
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We thank M. Haselbeck for providing the green fluorescent protein, and E. Bertel and N. Memmel for discussions on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond, as well as the Raman spectra shown as supplementary information. We also thank the staff of BESSY for help during the experiments. A.H. acknowledges the Technische Universität München for financial support within a PhD fellowship. J.H. thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for financial support.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Härtl, A., Schmich, E., Garrido, J. et al. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications. Nature Mater 3, 736–742 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1204
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