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The artificial heart valve

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Figure 1
Figure 2: Bi-leaflet valve designs.
Figure 3: Ball valve designs.
Figure 4: Success in humans.
Figure 5: Later developments.


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I need to thank my colleagues and comrades in arms: J.A. Wood, my friend and partner who developed the fine details of operative technique necessary for successful outcome and who slept alongside our early patients in the intensive care unit; R. Herr; R. Kendall; and C. McCord. They were great cardiac surgeons who assisted on our early cases. They were the surgical core surrounded by cardiologists, nephrologists, neurologists and many other specialists who allowed heart-valve replacement to become a standard, low-risk operation with predictable outcomes. Most importantly, I must thank the patients, who trusted me.

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Starr, A. The artificial heart valve. Nat Med 13, 1160–1164 (2007).

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