Clinical trial results from 11,344 paired urine and serum samples revealed 1,181 HIV-1–positive individuals confirmed by western blot (WB). There were 25 discrepant samples: 10 were urine enzyme immunassay (EIA) and WB positive, serum non-reactive and serum WB negative or indeterminate, and 15 were serum EIA and WB positive, urine EIA non-reactive or urine WB negative or indeterminate. Serum samples, HIV-1 antibody WB confirmed, revealed a 99.15% sensitivity (1,171 out of 1,181); urine samples, HIV-1 antibody WB confirmed, showed a 98.73% sensitivity (1,166 out of 1,181). This study demonstrated that neither serum nor urine results alone are as sensitive for HIV-1 antibody detection as combined results of both samples.
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Urnovitz, H., Sturge, J. & Gottfried, T. Increased sensitivity of HIV-1 antibody detection. Nat Med 3, 1258 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1197-1258
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