Ethics guidelines for research with the recently dead

Article metrics

The objective of the multidisciplinary expert Consensus Panel on Research with the Recently Dead (CPRRD) was to craft ethics guidelines for research with the recently dead. The CPRRD recommends that research with the recently dead: (i) receive scientific and ethical review and oversight; (ii) involve the community of potential research subjects; (iii) be coordinated with organ procurement organizations; (iv) not conflict with organ donation or required autopsy; (v) use procedures respectful of the dead; (vi) be restricted to one procedure per day; (vii) preferably be authorized by first-person consent, though both general advance research directives and surrogate consent are acceptable; (viii) protect confidentiality; (ix) not impose costs on subjects' estates or next of kin and not involve payment; (x) clearly explain ultimate disposition of the body.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Boyce, N. US News and World Report 12 January 2004.

  2. 2

    Kotulak, R. Chicago Tribune 15 May 2003.

  3. 3

    Wade, N. The New York Times 12 February 2002.

  4. 4

    Couzin, J. Science 299, 29–30 (2003).

  5. 5

    Guterman, L. Chronicle of Higher Education 49, A13 (2003).

  6. 6

    Committee for the Oversight of Research Involving the Dead. Crit. Care Med. 31, Supplement S391–S393 (2003).

  7. 7

    Pentz, R.D., Flamm, A.L., Pasqualini, R., Logothetis, C.J. & Arap, W. Hastings Cent. Rep. 33, 2–8 (2003).

  8. 8

    De Frias, E.C., de Paz, F.B., Martinez, A.P. & Mestres, C.P. J. Pediatr. 96, 153 (1980).

  9. 9

    Maugh, T.J. Science 206, 5 (1979).

  10. 10

    Coller, B.S., Scudder, L.E., Berger, H.J. & Iuliucci, J. D. Ann. Intern. Med. 109, 635–638 (1988).

  11. 11

    Dickson, D. Science 239, 1370 (1988).

  12. 12

    Kolff, J. et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 87, 825–831 (1984).

  13. 13

    Carson, R.A., Frias, J.L. & Melder, R.J. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 3, 5–6 (1981).

  14. 14

    Ghorpade, A. et al. J. Neuroimmunol. 163, 135–144 (2005).

  15. 15

    Embuscado, E.E. et al. Cancer Bio. Ther. 4, 548–554 (2005).

  16. 16

    Shah, R.B. et al. Cancer Res. 64, 9209–9016 (2004).

  17. 17

    Arap, W. et al. Nat. Med. 8, 121–127 (2002).

  18. 18

    Yasko, L., Wicclair, M. & DeVita, M. Camb. Q. Healthc. Ethics 13, 327 (2004).

  19. 19

    Aziz, M.F. et al. Anat. Rec. 269, 20–32 (2002).

  20. 20

    Feinberg, J. Hastings Cent. Rep. 15, 31–37 (1985).

  21. 21

    Broder, J.M. The New York Times 12 March 2004.

  22. 22

    Firestone, D. & McFadden, R.D. The New York Times 17 February 2002.

  23. 23

    Nelkin, D. & Andrews, L. Am. J. Law Med. 24, 261–292 (1998).

  24. 24

    Gaylin, W. Harpers (N Y N Y) 249, 23–28 (1974).

  25. 25

    Wicclair, M. & De Vita, M. Kennedy Inst. Ethics J. 14, 143–164 (2004).

  26. 26

    Beyleveld, D. & Brownsword, R. Human Dignity in Bioethics and Biolaw (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, 2001).

  27. 27

    Cohen, C.B. Kennedy Inst. Ethics J. 12, 47–64 (2002).

  28. 28

    Protection of Human Subjects: Subpart A. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. 45 CFR Part 46.102 (f) and 21 CFR 50.3 (g).

  29. 29

    Pelletier, M. J. Adv. Nurs. 17, 90–97 (2002).

  30. 30

    Bartucci, M.R. J. Neurosci. Nurs. 19, 305–309 (1987).

  31. 31

    Batten, H.L. & Prottas, J.M. Health Aff. 6, 35–47 (1987).

  32. 32

    Browne, D.C., Clubb, P.A., Aubrecht, A.M.B. & Jackson, M. Matern. Child Health J. 5, 215–224 (2001).

  33. 33

    Sharp, R.R. & Foster, M.W. J. Law Med. Ethics 28, 41–51, 53 (2000).

  34. 34

    Sullivan, M. et al. Health Educ. Behav. 28, 130–149 (2001).

  35. 35

    National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants, Summary. (US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001)

  36. 36

    Brandt, A.M. & Freidenfelds, L. Kennedy Inst. Ethics J. 6, 242 (1996).

  37. 37

    Churchill, L.R. et al. IRB 25, 1–8 (2003).

  38. 38

    Protection of Human Subjects: Subpart A. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. 21 CFR Part 50:24.

  39. 39

    Corbie-Smith, G. et al. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 18, 531–541 (2003).

  40. 40

    Metcalf, P. & Huntington, R. Celebrations of Death 2nd edn (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, 1991).

  41. 41

    Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA) (amended 1987), 8A U.L.A. 19 (1993 and Suppl. 1997)

  42. 42

    Wendler, D. & Dickert, N. JAMA 285, 329–333 (2001).

  43. 43

    Regehr, C., Kjerulf, M., Popova, S. & Baker, A. J. Clin. Nurs. 13, 430–437 (2004).

  44. 44

    Youngner, S.J. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 313, 321–324 (1984).

  45. 45

    Siminoff, L.A. Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. 9, 85–95 (1997).

  46. 46

    Shapiro, R.S. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation 7, 375–379 (2002).

  47. 47

    Coller, B.S. Clin. Res. 37, 487–494 (1989).

  48. 48

    La Puma, J. Ann. Intern. Med. 109, 606–608 (1988).

  49. 49

    Baker, R. Ann. Intern. Med. 110, 88 (1989).

  50. 50

    Akabayashi, A. & Marioka, M. BioLaw 2, S531–S538 (1991).

  51. 51

    Robertson, J. IRB 2, 4–7 (1980).

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank J. Menikoff, E.P. Richards, R.S. Shapiro and R. Veatch for advising us on the UAGA requirements and OPO practices. We also thank I. Stith-Coleman for her participation as a resource consultant to the panel, and B. Kilburn for preparing notes of the conference. The final guidelines are solely the responsibility of the CPRRD. The CPRRD was supported by grants from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and Health System, Emory Office of Research, the National Cancer Institute 1R13CA108423 and William A. Parker, Jr. All authors were members of the CPRRD and participated fully in the drafting and editing of the recommendations.

Author information

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pentz, R., Cohen, C., Wicclair, M. et al. Ethics guidelines for research with the recently dead. Nat Med 11, 1145–1149 (2005) doi:10.1038/nm1105-1145

Download citation

Further reading