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I dedicate this article to R. Glantz, Kleiner's daughter, for her generosity in sharing her family history. I had the privilege to meet her before her death. I would also like to thank A. Glantz, K. Glantz and P. Kleiner for sharing their recollections of their grandfather and generously providing me with family documents. D. Lehr generously shared his memories of Kleiner and the environment of the New York Medical College during the years that he and Kleiner were on its faculty. L. Hiltzik and T. Rosenbaum guided me through the resources of the Rockefeller Archives Center. Their help was indispensable, as were the resources of the American Philosophic Society. The New York Medical College generously shared its resources. G. Ceccarini performed the statistical analyses of the Kleiner paper and reviewed the original Banting and Best paper with great care and precision. Finally, I would like to thank J. Darnell, A. Mark, S. Strickland, G. Ceccarini, Z. Knight, T. Rink, M. Tessier-Lavigne, J. Goldstein, T. De Lange and P.-O. Berggren for their helpful comments.
The author declares no competing financial interests.
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