Commentary | Published:

The bumpy road to human in vitro fertilization

Nature Medicine volume 7, pages 10911094 (2001) | Download Citation

Subjects

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    The experimental induction of gynogenesis in the mouse. I. Irradiation of the sperm by X rays. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. B 146, 488–504 (1957).

  2. 2.

    & Induction of superovulation and pregnancy in mature mice treated by gonadotrophins. J. Endocrinol. 15, 374–384 (1957).

  3. 3.

    & The labelling of mammalian spermatozoa with radioactive tracers. J. Exp. Zool. 137, 363–388 (1958).

  4. 4.

    & in Control of Human Fertility. Nobel Symposium (eds. Diczfalusy, E & Borell, U.) 15 (Almqvist and Niksell, Stockholm, 1971).

  5. 5.

    , & Purification of gonadotrophin from human menopausal urine. Acta Endocrinol. 45, 329 (1964).

  6. 6.

    Development of gonadotrophins for clinical use. Symposium, Robert Edwards at 75. Reprod. BioMed. Online 2, (in the press).

  7. 7.

    & The comparative behaviour of mammalian eggs in vivo and in vitro. Anat. Rec. 75, 537–545 (1939).

  8. 8.

    Meiosis in ovarian oocytes of adult mammals. Nature 196, 446–450 (1972).

  9. 9.

    Maturation in vitro of human ovarian oocytes. Lancet 208, 39–351 (1965).

  10. 10.

    Cleavage of one- and two-celled rabbit eggs in vitro after removal of the zona pellucida J. Reprod. Fertil. 7, 413–415 (1964).

  11. 11.

    , & Cytogenesis and embryogenesis in cell colonies and tissue cultures derived from ova and blastocysts of the rabbit. Dev. Biol. 13, 387–407 (1966).

  12. 12.

    Maturation in vitro of mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human ovarian oocytes. Nature 208, 349–351 (1965).

  13. 13.

    & In vitro fertilization of golden hamster ova. J. Exp. Zool. 156, 361–376 (1964).

  14. 14.

    , & Early stages of human fertilization in vitro of human oocytes matured in vitro. Nature 221, 632–635 (1969).

  15. 15.

    in Laparoscopy in Gynaecology (E. & S. Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1967).

  16. 16.

    & Social values and research in human embryology. Nature 231, 87–91 (1971).

  17. 17.

    , & Human blastocysts grown in culture. Nature 229, 132–133 (1971).

  18. 18.

    The Artifice of Ethics (SCM Press, Lancaster, 1974).

  19. 19.

    , & The relationship between the timing of luteectomy and the incidence of complete abortions. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118, 985–989 (1974).

  20. 20.

    & Reimplantation of a human embryo with subsequent tubal pregnancy. Lancet 1, 880–882 (1976).

  21. 21.

    & A Matter of Life (Hutchinsons, London, 1980).

  22. 22.

    , & Establishing full term pregnancies using cleaving embryos grown in vitro. Brit. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 87, 737–756 (1980).

  23. 23.

    & Principles and Practice of Assisted Human Reproduction (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1995).

  24. 25.

    , & Clinical aspects of pregnancies established with cleaving embryos grown in vitro. Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 87, 757–768 (1980).

  25. 26.

    , & Observations of 767 clinical pregnancies and 500 births after human conception in vitro. Hum. Reprod. 1, 89–94 (1986).

  26. 27.

    , & The use of probes for the Y chromosome in preimplantation embryo cells. Hum. Reprod. 2, 439–455 (1987).

  27. 28.

    Mouse chimaeras obtained by the injection of cells into the blastocyst. Nature 220, 596–597 (1968).

  28. 29.

    Embryonic stem cell grafting: the therapy of the future. Hum. Reprod. 6, 79–84 (1991).

  29. 30.

    , & Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreted by preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro. Science 223, 816–818 (1984).

  30. 31.

    The case for studying human embryos and their constituent tissues in vitro. In Human Conception in Vitro (eds. Edwards, R.G. & Purdy, J.M.) 371–387 (Academic Press, London, 1982).

  31. 32.

    Ovarian differentiation and human embryo quality. 1. Molecular and morphogenetic homologies between Drosophila, C. elegans, Xenopus and mammals. Reprod. BioMed. Online, 3, Webpaper 2001/156 (2001).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Reproductive BioMedicine Online Duck End Farm, Dry Drayton Cambridge, UK

    • Robert G. Edwards

Authors

  1. Search for Robert G. Edwards in:

About this article

Publication history

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1001-1091

Further reading

Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing