Figure 1 : Alternative antitumor vaccine strategies based on a previously undescribed BDCA3-expressing DC subset.

From: A needle in the 'cancer vaccine' haystack

Figure 1

(a) Upon TLR3 stimulation, BDCA3+ DCs recognize necrotic tumor cells via DNGR-1, phagocytose dying cells and cross-present tumor antigens to CD8+ T cells, inducing CTL responses. They also secrete interferon-β and IL-12, cytokines that induce TH1 responses, which in turn enhance CTL responses crucial for antitumor immunity. (b) DC-based vaccines rely on two main approaches: ex vivo–generated DC vaccines loaded with tumor-associated antigens (peptides, proteins, irradiated tumor cells, RNA encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and bacterial and viral vectors, left); and specific DC targeting with DC-specific antibodies fused with tumor-associated antigens (right). Recent findings characterizing the BDCA3+ DC subset enable rational approaches to isolate, expand and load BDCA3+ DCs ex vivo or to specifically target tumor-associated antigens to these DCs with antibodies specific to cell surface receptors such as DNGR1. MoDCs, monocyte-derived DCs. Image: Katie Vicari