The next frontier of molecular medicine: Delivery of therapeutics

Despite exciting progress in the biology underlying a variety of proposed molecular medicines, an unmet challenge Remains—delivery. This problem, how to better target the new generation of therapeutics, cuts across all diseases. The solution offers unprecedented opportunities for multidisciplinary teams of bioengineers to work with biological and medical scientists to realize the fruits of our nation's investment in molecular and cellular medicine.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Jain, R.K. Delivery of Molecular Medicine to Solid Tumors. Science 271, 1079–1080 (1996).

  2. 2

    Klausner, R.D., The Nation's Investment in Cancer Research: A Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 1999. National Cancer Institute (September 1997).

  3. 3

    Jain, R.K. 1996 Eugene M. Landis Award Lecture: Delivery of Molecular and Cellular Medicine to Solid Tumors. Microcirculation 4, 1–23 (1997).

  4. 4

    Jain, R.K., Schlenger, K., Höckel, M. & Yuan, F. Quantitative Angiofenesis Assays: Progress and Problems. Nature Med. 3, 1203–1208 (1997).

  5. 5

    Fidler, I.J. Modulation of the organ microenvironment for treatment of cancer metastasis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1588–1592 (1995).

  6. 6

    Hanahan, D. & Folkman, J. Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell 6, 353–64 (1996).

  7. 7

    Kerbel, R.S. A cancer therapy resistant to resistance. Nature 390, 335–336 (1997).

  8. 8

    Arap, W., Pasqualini, R. & Ruoslahti, E. Cancer treatment by targeted drug delivery to tumor vasculature in a mouse model. Science 279, 377–380 (1998).

  9. 9

    Baxter, L.T., Zhu, H., Butler, W.F., Mackensen, D.G. & Jain, R.K. Biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies: scale-up from mouse to man using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. Cancer Res. 55, 4611–4622 (1995).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jain, R. The next frontier of molecular medicine: Delivery of therapeutics. Nat Med 4, 655–657 (1998).

Download citation

Further reading