Etiologies of cardiomyopathy and heart failure

Article metrics


Evidence for a final common pathway for disorders of the myocardium (pages 246 and 320–330).

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Normal and cardiomyopathic hearts.
Figure 2: Sarcomere and cytoskeleton.


  1. 1

    Georgakopoulous, D. et al. The pathogenesis of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Early and evolving effects of an α-cardiac myosin heavy chain missense mutation. Nature Med. 5, 327– 330 (1999).

  2. 2

    Lim, H.W. & Molkentin, J.D. Calcineurin and human heart failure. Nature Med. 5, 246– 247 (1999).

  3. 3

    Badorff, C. et al. Enteroviral protease 2A cleaves dystrophin: Evidence of cytoskeletal disruption in an acquired cardiomyopathy. Nature Med. 5, 320–326 (1999).

  4. 4

    Seidman, C.E. & Seidman, J.G. in Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine (ed. Haber, E.) 193–210 (Scientific American Press, New York, 1995).

  5. 5

    Watkins, H. et al. Mutations in the genes for cardiac troponin T and α-tropomyosin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 332 , 1058–1064 (1995).

  6. 6

    Molkentin, J.D. et al. A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy. Cell 93, 215– 228 (1998).

  7. 7

    Sussman, M.A. et al. Prevention of cardiac hypertrophy in mice by calcineurin inhibition. Science 281,1690–1693 (1998).

  8. 8

    Towbin, J.A. The role of cytoskeletal proteins in cardiomyopathies. Curr. Opin. Cell. Biol. 10, 131–139 (1998).

  9. 9

    Towbin, J.A. et al. X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy. Molecular genetic evidence of linkage to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus. Circulation 87, 1854–1865 ( 1993).

  10. 10

    Olson, J.M., Michels, V.V., Thibodeau, S.N., Tai, Y.S. & Keating, M.T. Actin mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy, an inheritable form of heart failure. Science 280, 750–752 (1998).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading