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Uncertainty in xenotransplantation: Individual benefit versus collective risk

Xenotransplantation continues to present daunting scientific hurdles but there is now a genuine prospect for clinical application. There are also significant and unknown risks. We call for a moratorium on all human xenotransplantation and offer a strategy for balancing the ethical, medical, scientific and societal demands of xenotransplantation prior to human clinical trials.

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Bach, F., Fishman, J., Daniels, N. et al. Uncertainty in xenotransplantation: Individual benefit versus collective risk. Nat Med 4, 141–144 (1998).

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