The multichannel cochlear implant for severe-to-profound hearing loss

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2: Temporal and place coding of sound.
Figure 3
Figure 4: Early implants.
Figure 5: Psychophysical studies in the first patient.
Figure 6: Other important milestones.


  1. 1

    Lawrence, M. Direct stimulation of auditory nerve fibers. Arch. Otolaryngol. 80, 367–368 (1964).

  2. 2

    Williams, A.J., Clark, G.M. & Stanley, G.V. Pitch discrimination in the cat through electrical stimulation of the terminal auditory nerve fibers. Physiol. Psychol. 4, 23–27 (1976).

  3. 3

    Clark, G.M. Personal reflections on the multichannel cochlear implant and a view of the future. J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 45, 651–693 (2008).

  4. 4

    Clark, G.M. in Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Speech Processing In The Auditory System (ed. Greenberg, S.) 722–762 (Springer, New York, 2003).

  5. 5

    Clark, G.M. The multiple-channel cochlear implant: the interface between sound and the central nervous system for hearing, speech, and language in deaf people—a personal perspective. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 361, 791–810 (2006).

  6. 6

    Busby, P.A., Whitford, L.A., Blamey, P.J., Richardson, L.M. & Clark, G.M. Pitch perception for different modes of stimulation using the cochlear multiple-electrode prosthesis. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2658–2669 (1994).

  7. 7

    Clark, G.M. et al. The histopathology of the human temporal bone and auditory central nervous system following cochlear implantation in a patient. Correlation with psychophysics and speech perception results. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 448, 1–65 (1988).

  8. 8

    Shepherd, R.K., Clark, G.M. & Black, R.C. Chronic electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in cats. Physiological and histopathological results. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 399, 19–31 (1983).

  9. 9

    Tong, Y.C. et al. A preliminary report on a multiple-channel cochlear implant operation. J. Laryngol. Otol. 93, 679–695 (1979).

  10. 10

    Tong, Y.C., Clark, G.M., Blamey, P.J., Busby, P.A. & Dowell, R.C. Psychophysical studies for two multiple-channel cochlear implant patients. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 153–160 (1982).

  11. 11

    Tong, Y.C., Blamey, P.J., Dowell, R.C. & Clark, G.M. Psychophysical studies evaluating the feasibility of a speech processing strategy for a multiple-channel cochlear implant. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 73–80 (1983).

  12. 12

    Tong, Y.C., Dowell, R.C., Blamey, P.J. & Clark, G.M. Two-component hearing sensations produced by two-electrode stimulation in the cochlea of a deaf patient. Science 219, 993–994 (1983).

  13. 13

    Blamey, P.J., Martin, L.F. & Clark, G.M. A comparison of three speech coding strategies using an acoustic model of a cochlear implant. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 209–217 (1985).

  14. 14

    van Hoesel, R.J & Clark, G.M. Psychophysical studies with two binaural cochlear implant subjects. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 495–507 (1997).

  15. 15

    Clark, G.M. et al. Preliminary results for the cochlear corporation multi-electrode intracochlear implants on six prelingually deaf patients. Am. J. Otol. 8, 234–239 (1987).

Download references


First, I would like to express deep gratitude to my wife Margaret; our children: Sonya, Cecily, Roslyn, Merran and Jonathan, and their spouses; our grandchildren; and our parents. It has been exhilarating leading a talented research team and being part of a unique development by Cochlear Ltd. I would like to thank the Universities of Melbourne and Sydney and the Eye & Ear Hospital for crucial support. We were greatly helped by funding from the TV Channel 10 Nerve Deafness Appeal, a Public Interest Grant from the Australian government, the Bionic Ear Institute and many trusts and foundations. Our scientific studies and development were supported in particular by the National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia, the Australian Research Council, the Cooperative Research Centres Program and the US National Institutes of Health. I thank NICTA for support for research to develop more advanced cochlear implants to achieve high-fidelity sound and better hearing in noise. I would also like to thank David Lawrence, Debbie Mussett, Jonathan Clark and Ian Rutherford for help in completing this manuscript.

Author information

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Clark, G. The multichannel cochlear implant for severe-to-profound hearing loss. Nat Med 19, 1236–1239 (2013).

Download citation

Further reading