Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Essay
  • Published:

The long reach of liver transplantation

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1: Three early approaches to liver transplantation.
Figure 2: Early successes of liver transplantation.
Figure 3: Stepwise immunosuppression-associated improvements in liver-transplant survival.
Figure 4
Figure 5: The kinetics of immunosuppression-aided exhaustion and deletion of host-versus-graft (HvG) and graft-versus-host (GvH) responses occurring contemporaneously in organ recipients after migration of the graft's passenger leukocytes.


  1. Starzl, T.E., Kaupp, H.A. Jr., Brock, D.R., Lazarus, R.E. & Johnson, R.V. Reconstructive problems in canine liver homotransplantation with special reference to the postoperative role of hepatic venous flow. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 111, 733–743 (1960).

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Starzl, T.E., Kaupp, H.A. Jr., Brock, D.R., Butz, G.W. Jr. & Linman, J.W. Homotransplantation of multiple visceral organs. Am. J. Surg. 103, 219–229 (1962).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Starzl, T.E. et al. The origin, hormonal nature, and action of hepatotrophic substances in portal venous blood. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 137, 179–199 (1973).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Starzl, T.E. et al. Homotransplantation of the liver in humans. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 117, 659–676 (1963).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Starzl, T.E. et al. Orthotopic homotransplantation of the human liver. Ann. Surg. 168, 392–415 (1968).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Starzl, T.E. Experience in Hepatic Transplantation (WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1969).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Starzl, T.E., Klintmalm, G.B.G., Porter, K.A., Iwatsuki, S. & Schroter, G.P.J. Liver transplantation with use of cyclosporin A and prednisone. N. Engl. J. Med. 305, 266–269 (1981).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Starzl, T.E. et al. FK 506 for human liver, kidney and pancreas transplantation. Lancet 334, 1000–1004 (1989).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Starzl, T.E. et al. Cell migration, chimerism, and graft acceptance. Lancet 339, 1579–1582 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Starzl, T.E. & Zinkernagel, R. Antigen localization and migration in immunity and tolerance. N. Engl. J. Med. 339, 1905–1913 (1998).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas E Starzl.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Starzl, T. The long reach of liver transplantation. Nat Med 18, 1489–1492 (2012).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing