Glenny, A.T., Pope, C.G., Waddington, H. & Wallace, U. Immunological Notes: XVII–XXIV. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 29, 31–40 (1926).
Mannhalter, J.W., Neychev, H.O., Zlabinger, G.J., Ahmad, R. & Eibl, M.M. Modulation of the human immune response by the non-toxic and non-pyrogenic adjuvant aluminium hydroxide: effect on antigen uptake and antigen presentation. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 61, 143–151 (1985).
Li, H., Nookala, S. & Re, F. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvants activate Caspase-1 and induce IL-1β and IL-18 release. J. Immunol. 178, 5271–5276 (2007).
Hornung, V. et al. Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat. Immunol. 9, 847–856 (2008).
Eisenbarth, S.C., Colegio, O.R., O'Connor, W., Sutterwala, F.S. & Flavell, R.A. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature 453, 1122–1126 (2008).
Franchi, L. & Nunez, G. The Nlrp3 inflammasome is critical for aluminium hydroxide-mediated IL-1β; secretion but dispensable for adjuvant activity. Eur. J. Immunol. 38, 2085–2089 (2008).
Kool, M. et al. Cutting Edge: alum adjuvant stimulates inflammatory dendritic cells through activation of the NALP3 inflammasome. J. Immunol. 181, 3755–3759 (2008).
Li, H., Willingham, S.B., Ting, J.P.Y. & Re, F. Cutting Edge: Inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3. J. Immunol. 181, 17–21 (2008).
Spreafico, R., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P. & Mortellaro, A. The controversial relationship between NLRP3, alum, danger signals and the next-generation adjuvants. Eur. J. Immunol. 40, 638–642 (2010).
McKee, A.S. et al. Alum induces innate immune responses through macrophage and mast cell sensors, but these sensors are not required for alum to act as an adjuvant for specific immunity. J. Immunol. 183, 4403–4414 (2009).
Kool, M. et al. Alum adjuvant boosts adaptive immunity by inducing uric acid and activating inflammatory dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 205, 869–882 (2008).
Goto, N. et al. Local tissue irritating effects and adjuvant activities of calcium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide with different physical properties. Vaccine 15, 1364–1371 (1997).
Kono, H. & Rock, K.L. How dying cells alert the immune system to danger. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 279–289 (2008).
Chen, G.Y. & Nunez, G. Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10, 826–837 (2010).
Ishii, K.J. et al. Genomic DNA released by dying cells induces the maturation of APCs. J. Immunol. 167, 2602–2607 (2001).
Takeshita, F. & Ishii, K.J. Intracellular DNA sensors in immunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 20, 383–388 (2008).
Takeuchi, O. & Akira, S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 140, 805–820 (2010).
Lande, R. et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense self-DNA coupled with antimicrobial peptide. Nature 449, 564–569 (2007).
Imaeda, A.B. et al. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is dependent on Tlr9 and the Nalp3 inflammasome. J. Clin. Invest. 119, 305–314 (2009).
Takaoka, A. et al. DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) is a cytosolic DNA sensor and an activator of innate immune response. Nature 448, 501–505 (2007).
Muruve, D.A. et al. The inflammasome recognizes cytosolic microbial and host DNA and triggers an innate immune response. Nature 452, 103–107 (2008).
Chiu, Y.-H., MacMillan, J.B. & Chen, Z.J. RNA Polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I Interferons through the RIG-I pathway. Cell 138, 576–591 (2009).
Fernandes-Alnemri, T., Yu, J.-W., Datta, P., Wu, J. & Alnemri, E.S. AIM2 activates the inflammasome and cell death in response to cytoplasmic DNA. Nature 458, 509–513 (2009).
Hornung, V. et al. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature 458, 514–518 (2009).
Ishikawa, H., Ma, Z. & Barber, G.N. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature 461, 788–792 (2009).
Yanai, H. et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature 462, 99–103 (2009).
Yang, P. et al. The cytosolic nucleic acid sensor LRRFIP1 mediates the production of type I interferon via a β-catenin–dependent pathway. Nat. Immunol. 11, 487–494 (2010).
Ishii, K.J. et al. A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat. Immunol. 7, 40–48 (2006).
Bonnard, M. et al. Deficiency of T2K leads to apoptotic liver degeneration and impaired NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. EMBO J. 19, 4976–4985 (2000).
Ishii, K.J. et al. TANK-binding kinase-1 delineates innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. Nature 451, 725–729 (2008).
Marichal, T. et al. Interferon response factor 3 is essential for house dust mite-induced airway allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 126, 836–844 (2010).
Reinhardt, R.L., Liang, H.-E. & Locksley, R.M. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nat. Immunol. 10, 385–393 (2009).
Naik, S.H. et al. Intrasplenic steady-state dendritic cell precursors that are distinct from monocytes. Nat. Immunol. 7, 663–671 (2006).
Shortman, K. & Naik, S.H. Steady-state and inflammatory dendritic-cell development. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7, 19–30 (2007).
Khader, S.A. et al. Interleukin 12p40 is required for dendritic cell migration and T cell priming after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J. Exp. Med. 203, 1805–1815 (2006).
Robinson, R.T. et al. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL-12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J. Immunol. 181, 5560–5567 (2008).
Yasutomo, K. et al. Mutation of DNASE1 in people with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat. Genet. 28, 313–314 (2001).
Yoshida, H., Okabe, Y., Kawane, K., Fukuyama, H. & Nagata, S. Lethal anemia caused by interferon-beta produced in mouse embryos carrying undigested DNA. Nat. Immunol. 6, 49–56 (2005).
Kawane, K. et al. Chronic polyarthritis caused by mammalian DNA that escapes from degradation in macrophages. Nature 443, 998–1002 (2006).
Pulendran, B. & Ahmed, R. Translating Innate Immunity into Immunological Memory: Implications for Vaccine Development. Cell 124, 849–863 (2006).
Coffman, R.L., Sher, A. & Seder, R.A. Vaccine adjuvants: putting innate immunity to work. Immunity 33, 492–503 (2010).
Fazilleau, N., McHeyzer-Williams, L.J., Rosen, H. & McHeyzer-Williams, M.G. The function of follicular helper T cells is regulated by the strength of T cell antigen receptor binding. Nat. Immunol. 10, 375–384 (2009).
Fazilleau, N., Mark, L., McHeyzer-Williams, L.J. & McHeyzer-Williams, M.G. Follicular helper T cells: lineage and location. Immunity 30, 324–335 (2009).
Nakano, H. et al. Blood-derived inflammatory dendritic cells in lymph nodes stimulate acute T helper type 1 immune responses. Nat. Immunol. 10, 394–402 (2009).
Mohr, E. et al. Dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophages that create the IL-6/APRIL-rich lymph node microenvironments where plasmablasts mature. J. Immunol. 182, 2113–2123 (2009).
Hemmi, H. et al. A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 408, 740–745 (2000).
Hemmi, H. et al. The roles of two IκB kinase–related kinases in lipopolysaccharide and double stranded RNA signaling and viral infection. J. Exp. Med. 199, 1641–1650 (2004).
Sato, M. et al. Distinct and essential roles of transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in response to viruses for IFN-α/β gene induction. Immunity 13, 539–548 (2000).
Kimura, T. et al. Essential and non-redundant roles of p48 (ISGF3 gamma) and IRF-1 in both type I and type II interferon responses, as revealed by gene targeting studies. Genes Cells 1, 115–124 (1996).
Mariathasan, S. et al. Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf. Nature 430, 213–218 (2004).
Mariathasan, S. et al. Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP. Nature 440, 228–232 (2006).
Bedoret, D. et al. Lung interstitial macrophages alter dendritic cell functions to prevent airway allergy in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 119, 3723–3738 (2009).
Nigg, A.P. et al. Dendritic cell-derived IL-12p40 homodimer contributes to susceptibility in cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. J. Immunol. 178, 7251–7258 (2007).