Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative process characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor clinical manifestations for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Here we discuss a series of critical issues that we think researchers need to address to stand a better chance of solving the different challenges posed by this pathology.
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Microglia-specific overexpression of α-synuclein leads to severe dopaminergic neurodegeneration by phagocytic exhaustion and oxidative toxicity
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This article is the result of a meeting held by the authors in the village of Marcalain (Navarra, Spain) with the support of an unrestricted educational grant from Lundbeck Spain. R. Coll, J. Brenninkmeijer and M. Hickery (Lundbeck) assisted on logistical aspects of the meeting, but the company had no role whatsoever in the content of the meeting and the scope of this article. We are particularly thankful to the Idoate family for their hospitality.
J.A.O. has served on the Advisory Board of GlaxoSmithKline (UK) and received honoraria for lecturing at meetings organized by GlaxoSmithKline (Spain), Lundbeck-Teva and UCB. M.C.R.-O. participates in the Advisory Board of UCB Spain and receives payment for lectures and travel accommodation payments for scientific meetings from GlaxoSmithKline, UCB, Lundbeck and Medtronic and for teaching courses from Medtronic. C.G.G., as of the 12 months ending September 2009, is a consultant to or member of Advisory Boards, with associated honoraria, for Asubio, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Impax Pharmaceuticals, i3 Research, Ingenix, Juvantia Pharmaceuticals, Neurim Pharmaceuticals, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Osmotica Pharmaceutical, Oxford Biomedica, Santhera Pharmaceuticals, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharmaceuticals, United Biosource Corporation and UCB. J.K. is a founding scientist and Scientific Advisory Board member of Ceregene Inc. A.S. has received honoraria from Lundbeck-Teva, Boehringer-Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline and Orion-Novartis for advice on Parkinson's disease drug research and development and for educational symposia. E.H., G.H., M.R. and C.M. report no conflicts of interest.
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Obeso, J., Rodriguez-Oroz, M., Goetz, C. et al. Missing pieces in the Parkinson's disease puzzle. Nat Med 16, 653–661 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2165
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