We have identified a new human immunodeficiency virus in a Cameroonian woman. It is closely related to gorilla simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVgor) and shows no evidence of recombination with other HIV-1 lineages. This new virus seems to be the prototype of a new HIV-1 lineage that is distinct from HIV-1 groups M, N and O. We propose to designate it HIV-1 group P.
We thank H. Ichou for field assistance and all the staff of the Rouen Virology Laboratory. Funding was provided by Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites and Rouen University Hospital, France. J.E.D. is supported by a Wellcome Trust studentship.
Supplementary Figures 1–5, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 and Supplementary Methods