Protein-in-adjuvant vaccines have shown limited success against difficult diseases such as blood-stage malaria. Here we show that a recombinant adenovirus–poxvirus prime-boost immunization regime (known to induce strong T cell immunogenicity) can also induce very strong antigen-specific antibody responses, and we identify a simple complement-based adjuvant to further enhance immunogenicity. Antibodies induced against a blood-stage malaria antigen by this viral vector platform are highly effective against Plasmodium yoelii parasites in mice and against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.
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We thank L. Andrews, R. Fredslund-Andersen, J. Furze, C. Hutchings, A. Reyes-Sandoval, A. Spencer, S. Saurya, S. Sridhar, M. Tunnicliff, J.-B. Marchand, S. Moretz and H. Zhou for assistance and S. Ogun for discussions. This work was funded by the UK Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust. The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative program and the Intramural US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Program supported the GIA work. S.J.D. held a UK Medical Research Council Studentship during most of this work and is now a Junior Research Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. A.V.S.H. is a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow.
F.H. is an employee of Imaxio, which owns rights to and is developing the C4bp adjuvant technology.
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