Organizational biases against motherhood exist in academia, find US researchers. Kirsten Isgro at the State University of New York Plattsburgh and Mari Castañeda at the University of Massachusetts Amherst found that US universities and colleges conflate sabbatical leave and maternity leave, or expect female faculty members to time their child-raising years around tenure decisions (K. Isgro and M. Castañeda Womens Stud. Int. Forum; 2015). They collected accounts from more than 300 women in academic positions. Isgro says that there is no single ideal path for a woman to mesh her life as a parent with her work.