Both microbial products and T cell factors influence dendritic cell (DC) maturation. However, it is not known which T cells are capable of interacting with DCs at the initiation of adaptive immunity, when foreign antigen–specific T cells are rare. We show here that self-reactive CD1-restricted T cells can promote DC maturation by recognizing CD1 in the absence of foreign antigens. T cell recognition of all four CD1 isoforms can trigger DC maturation, but their distinct mechanisms of costimulation lead to profound differences in concomitant interleukin 12 p70 production. Distinct CD1-reactive T cells may thus differentially direct DC development early in the immune response, thereby controlling subsequent polarization of acquired immunity.
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We thank T. Yamamura for αGalCer, S.B. Wilson for helpful discussions, and M. Brigl for critical review of the manuscript. Supported by the Arthritis Foundation (M. S. V. and D. S. L.), the Arthritis National Research Foundation (M. S. V.), the Charles A. King Trust of the Medical Foundation (J. E. G.) and the NIH (grants K08AR01996 and R21AR48037 to M. S. V., K08AR02171 to D. S. L. and R37AI29873 to M. B. B.)
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Vincent, M., Leslie, D., Gumperz, J. et al. CD1-dependent dendritic cell instruction. Nat Immunol 3, 1163–1168 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni851
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