Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Myeloid C-type lectins in innate immunity

Abstract

C-type lectins expressed on myeloid cells comprise a family of proteins that share a common structural motif, and some act as receptors in pathogen recognition. But just as the presence of leucine-rich repeats alone is not sufficient to define a Toll-like receptor, the characterization of C-type lectin receptors in innate immunity requires the identification of accompanying signaling motifs. Here we focus on the known signaling pathways of myeloid C-type lectins and on their possible functions as autonomous activating or inhibitory receptors involved in innate responses to pathogens or self.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Intracellular consequences of dectin-1 stimulation.
Figure 2: Distinct myeloid CLRs use distinct proximal signaling mechanisms.

References

  1. Janeway, C.A., Jr. Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 54, 1–13 (1989).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Kawai, T. & Akira, S. Innate immune recognition of viral infection. Nat. Immunol. 7, 131–137 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Medzhitov, R. & Janeway, C.A., Jr. Innate immunity: the virtues of a nonclonal system of recognition. Cell 91, 295–298 (1997).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Akira, S., Uematsu, S. & Takeuchi, O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124, 783–801 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Crocker, P.R. Siglecs in innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 5, 431–437 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Zelensky, A.N. & Gready, J.E. The C-type lectin-like domain superfamily. FEBS J 272, 6179–6217 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Geijtenbeek, T.B., van Vliet, S.J. & Engering, A., Hart, B.A. & van Kooyk, Y. Self- and nonself-recognition by C-type lectins on dendritic cells. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22, 33–54 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Drickamer, K. C-type lectin-like domains. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 9, 585–590 (1999).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. O'Rourke, D., Baban, D., Demidova, M., Mott, R. & Hodgkin, J. Genomic clusters, putative pathogen recognition molecules, and antimicrobial genes are induced by infection of C. elegans with M. nematophilum. Genome Res. 16, 1005–1016 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Takahashi, K., Ip, W.E., Michelow, I.C. & Ezekowitz, R.A. The mannose-binding lectin: a prototypic pattern recognition molecule. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18, 16–23 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Cash, H.L., Whitham, C.V., Behrendt, C.L. & Hooper, L.V. Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin. Science 313, 1126–1130 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Lanier, L.L. NK cell recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23, 225–274 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Blander, J.M. & Medzhitov, R. Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from Toll-like receptors. Science 304, 1014–1018 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Bonifacino, J.S. & Dell'Angelica, E.C. Molecular bases for the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals. J. Cell Biol. 145, 923–926 (1999).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Mahnke, K. et al. The dendritic cell receptor for endocytosis, DEC-205, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II-positive lysosomal compartments. J. Cell Biol. 151, 673–684 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Herre, J. et al. Dectin-1 uses novel mechanisms for yeast phagocytosis in macrophages. Blood 104, 4038–4045 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Rogers, N.C. et al. Syk-dependent cytokine induction by Dectin-1 reveals a novel pattern recognition pathway for C type lectins. Immunity 22, 507–517 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Underhill, D.M., Rossnagle, E., Lowell, C.A. & Simmons, R.M. Dectin-1 activates Syk tyrosine kinase in a dynamic subset of macrophages for reactive oxygen production. Blood 106, 2543–2550 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Gross, O. et al. Card9 controls a non-TLR signalling pathway for innate anti-fungal immunity. Nature 442, 651–656 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Engering, A. et al. The dendritic cell-specific adhesion receptor DC-SIGN internalizes antigen for presentation to T cells. J. Immunol. 168, 2118–2126 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Kwon, D.S., Gregorio, G., Bitton, N., Hendrickson, W.A. & Littman, D.R. DC-SIGN-mediated internalization of HIV is required for trans-enhancement of T cell infection. Immunity 16, 135–144 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Tacken, P.J., Torensma, R. & Figdor, C.G. Targeting antigens to dendritic cells in vivo. Immunobiology 211, 599–608 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Dzionek, A. et al. BDCA-2, a novel plasmacytoid dendritic cell-specific type II C-type lectin, mediates antigen capture and is a potent inhibitor of interferon alpha/beta induction. J. Exp. Med. 194, 1823–1834 (2001).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Carrasco, Y.R. & Batista, F.D. B cell recognition of membrane-bound antigen: an exquisite way of sensing ligands. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18, 286–291 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Brown, G.D. Dectin-1: a signalling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6, 33–43 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Underhill, D.M. et al. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature 401, 811–815 (1999).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Edwards, A.D. et al. Microbial recognition via Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent pathways determines the cytokine response of murine dendritic cell subsets to CD40 triggering. J. Immunol. 169, 3652–3660 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Steele, C. et al. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 recognizes specific morphologies of Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS Pathog. 1, e42 (2005).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Hohl, T.M. et al. Aspergillus fumigatus triggers inflammatory responses by stage-specific β-glucan display. PLoS Pathog. 1, e30 (2005).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Dillon, S. et al. Yeast zymosan, a stimulus for TLR2 and dectin-1, induces regulatory antigen-presenting cells and immunological tolerance. J. Clin. Invest. 116, 916–928 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Colonna, M., Samaridis, J. & Angman, L. Molecular characterization of two novel C-type lectin-like receptors, one of which is selectively expressed in human dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30, 697–704 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Suzuki-Inoue, K. et al. A novel Syk-dependent mechanism of platelet activation by the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2. Blood 107, 542–549 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Bakker, A.B., Baker, E., Sutherland, G.R., Phillips, J.H. & Lanier, L.L. Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 is a cell surface receptor involved in the activation of myeloid cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 9792–9796 (1999).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Kanazawa, N., Tashiro, K., Inaba, K. & Miyachi, Y. Dendritic cell immunoactivating receptor, a novel C-type lectin immunoreceptor, acts as an activating receptor through association with Fc receptor γ chain. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 32645–32652 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Ravetch, J.V. & Lanier, L.L. Immune inhibitory receptors. Science 290, 84–89 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Kanazawa, N. et al. DCIR acts as an inhibitory receptor depending on its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 261–266 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Richard, M., Thibault, N., Veilleux, P., Gareau-Page, G. & Beaulieu, A.D. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor reduces the affinity of SHP-2 for the ITIM of CLECSF6 in neutrophils: a new mechanism of action for SHP-2. Mol. Immunol. 43, 1716–1721 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Marshall, A.S. et al. Identification and characterization of a novel human myeloid inhibitory C-type lectin-like receptor (MICL) that is predominantly expressed on granulocytes and monocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 14792–14802 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Barrow, A.D. & Trowsdale, J. You say ITAM and I say ITIM, let's call the whole thing off: the ambiguity of immunoreceptor signalling. Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 1646–1653 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hamerman, J.A. & Lanier, L.L. Inhibition of immune responses by ITAM-bearing receptors. Sci. STKE 2006, re1 (2006).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Chen, C.H. et al. Dendritic-cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (DCAL-2) alters dendritic-cell maturation and cytokine production. Blood 107, 1459–1467 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Geijtenbeek, T.B. et al. Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function. J. Exp. Med. 197, 7–17 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Caparros, E. et al. DC-SIGN ligation on dendritic cells results in ERK and PI3K activation and modulates cytokine production. Blood 107, 3950–3958 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., Canavera, S.J., Akira, S. & Underhill, D.M. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J. Exp. Med. 197, 1107–1117 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Brown, G.D. et al. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of β-glucans. J. Exp. Med. 197, 1119–1124 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Napolitani, G., Rinaldi, A., Bertoni, F., Sallusto, F. & Lanzavecchia, A. Selected Toll-like receptor agonist combinations synergistically trigger a T helper type 1–polarizing program in dendritic cells. Nat. Immunol. 6, 769–776 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Gautier, G. et al. A type I interferon autocrine-paracrine loop is involved in Toll-like receptor-induced interleukin-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 201, 1435–1446 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Stahl, P., Schlesinger, P.H., Sigardson, E., Rodman, J.S. & Lee, Y.C. Receptor-mediated pinocytosis of mannose glycoconjugates by macrophages: characterization and evidence for receptor recycling. Cell 19, 207–215 (1980).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Ariizumi, K. et al. Identification of a novel, dendritic cell-associated molecule, dectin-1, by subtractive cDNA cloning. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 20157–20167 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Adachi, Y. et al. Characterization of β-glucan recognition site on C-type lectin, dectin 1. Infect. Immun. 72, 4159–4171 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Kim, Y.S. et al. Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan that mediates the signaling for the induction of innate immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 32721–32727 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Ochiai, M. & Ashida, M. A pattern-recognition protein for β-1,3-glucan. The binding domain and the cDNA cloning of β-1,3-glucan recognition protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 4995–5002 (2000).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M. & Underhill, D.M. Dectin-1 mediates macrophage recognition of Candida albicans yeast but not filaments. EMBO J. 24, 1277–1286 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Kang, P.B. et al. The human macrophage mannose receptor directs Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan-mediated phagosome biogenesis. J. Exp. Med. 202, 987–999 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Bergman, M.P. et al. Helicobacter pylori modulates the T helper cell 1/T helper cell 2 balance through phase-variable interaction between lipopolysaccharide and DC-SIGN. J. Exp. Med. 200, 979–990 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. Swain, S.D., Lee, S.J., Nussenzweig, M.C. & Harmsen, A.G. Absence of the macrophage mannose receptor in mice does not increase susceptibility to Pneumocystis carinii infection in vivo. Infect. Immun. 71, 6213–6221 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Lee, S.J., Zheng, N.Y., Clavijo, M. & Nussenzweig, M.C. Normal host defense during systemic candidiasis in mannose receptor-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 71, 437–445 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Mi, Y., Shapiro, S.D. & Baenziger, J.U. Regulation of lutropin circulatory half-life by the mannose/N-acetylgalactosamine-4–SO4 receptor is critical for implantation in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 109, 269–276 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. van Gisbergen, K.P., Sanchez-Hernandez, M., Geijtenbeek, T.B. & van Kooyk, Y. Neutrophils mediate immune modulation of dendritic cells through glycosylation-dependent interactions between Mac-1 and DC-SIGN. J. Exp. Med. 201, 1281–1292 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. van Gisbergen, K.P., Ludwig, I.S., Geijtenbeek, T.B. & van Kooyk, Y. Interactions of DC-SIGN with Mac-1 and CEACAM1 regulate contact between dendritic cells and neutrophils. FEBS Lett. 579, 6159–6168 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Lee, S.J. et al. Mannose receptor-mediated regulation of serum glycoprotein homeostasis. Science 295, 1898–1901 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Oka, K. et al. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 mediates phagocytosis of aged/apoptotic cells in endothelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9535–9540 (1998).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Yuita, H. et al. Retardation of removal of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in developing neural tubes in macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin-1-deficient mouse embryos. Glycobiology 15, 1368–1375 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Delneste, Y. et al. Involvement of LOX-1 in dendritic cell-mediated antigen cross-presentation. Immunity 17, 353–362 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. van Gisbergen, K.P., Aarnoudse, C.A., Meijer, G.A., Geijtenbeek, T.B. & van Kooyk, Y. Dendritic cells recognize tumor-specific glycosylation of carcinoembryonic antigen on colorectal cancer cells through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin. Cancer Res. 65, 5935–5944 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. van Vliet, S.J. et al. Carbohydrate profiling reveals a distinctive role for the C-type lectin MGL in the recognition of helminth parasites and tumor antigens by dendritic cells. Int. Immunol. 17, 661–669 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Yoshida, T. et al. SRCL/CL-P1 recognizes GalNAc and a carcinoma-associated antigen, Tn antigen. J. Biochem. 133, 271–277 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Aarnoudse, C.A., Garcia Vallejo, J.J., Saeland, E. & van Kooyk, Y. Recognition of tumor glycans by antigen-presenting cells. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18, 105–111 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. van Vliet, S.J., Gringhuis, S.I., Geijtenbeek, T.B. & van Kooyk, Y. Regulation of effector T cells by antigen-presenting cells via interaction of the C-type lectin MGL with CD45. Nat. Immunol. 7, 1200–1208 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Ryan, E.J. et al. Dendritic cell-associated lectin-1: a novel dendritic cell-associated, C-type lectin-like molecule enhances T cell secretion of IL-4. J. Immunol. 169, 5638–5648 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Aragane, Y. et al. Involvement of dectin-2 in ultraviolet radiation-induced tolerance. J. Immunol. 171, 3801–3807 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Chieppa, M. et al. Cross-linking of the mannose receptor on monocyte-derived dendritic cells activates an anti-inflammatory immunosuppressive program. J. Immunol. 171, 4552–4560 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Howard, M.J. & Isacke, C.M. The C-type lectin receptor Endo180 displays internalization and recycling properties distinct from other members of the mannose receptor family. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 32320–32331 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Bonifaz, L. et al. Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance. J. Exp. Med. 196, 1627–1638 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. van Kooyk, Y. & Geijtenbeek, T.B. DC-SIGN: escape mechanism for pathogens. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3, 697–709 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Kang, Y.S. et al. SIGN-R1, a novel C-type lectin expressed by marginal zone macrophages in spleen, mediates uptake of the polysaccharide dextran. Int. Immunol. 15, 177–186 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Arce, I., Martinez-Munoz, L., Roda-Navarro, P. & Fernandez-Ruiz, E. The human C-type lectin CLECSF8 is a novel monocyte/macrophage endocytic receptor. Eur. J. Immunol. 34, 210–220 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Mc Dermott, R. et al. Birbeck granules are subdomains of endosomal recycling compartment in human epidermal Langerhans cells, which form where Langerin accumulates. Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 317–335 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Sato, K. et al. Redistributions of macrophages expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin (MGL) during antigen-induced chronic granulation tissue formation. Int. Immunol. 17, 559–568 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Allavena, P., Chieppa, M., Monti, P. & Piemonti, L. From pattern recognition receptor to regulator of homeostasis: the double-faced macrophage mannose receptor. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 24, 179–192 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Koppel, E.A., van Gisbergen, K.P., Geijtenbeek, T.B. & van Kooyk, Y. Distinct functions of DC-SIGN and its homologues L-SIGN (DC-SIGNR) and mSIGNR1 in pathogen recognition and immune regulation. Cell. Microbiol. 7, 157–165 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Koppel, E.A. et al. Specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-related 1 (SIGNR1) expressed by marginal zone macrophages is essential for defense against pulmonary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 35, 2962–2969 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Nagaoka, K. et al. Association of SIGNR1 with TLR4-MD-2 enhances signal transduction by recognition of LPS in gram-negative bacteria. Int. Immunol. 17, 827–836 (2005).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Kang, Y.S. et al. The C-type lectin SIGN-R1 mediates uptake of the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the marginal zone of mouse spleen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 215–220 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. McGreal, E.P. et al. The carbohydrate-recognition domain of Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin with specificity for high mannose. Glycobiology 16, 422–430 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Stambach, N.S. & Taylor, M.E. Characterization of carbohydrate recognition by langerin, a C-type lectin of Langerhans cells. Glycobiology 13, 401–410 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Tada, Y. et al. Identification and characterization of endogenous Langerin ligands in murine extracellular matrix. J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 1549–1558 (2006).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Turville, S., Wilkinson, J., Cameron, P., Dable, J. & Cunningham, A.L. The role of dendritic cell C-type lectin receptors in HIV pathogenesis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 74, 710–718 (2003).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Kumamoto, Y. et al. Identification of sialoadhesin as a dominant lymph node counter-receptor for mouse macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 1. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 49274–49280 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Takada, A. et al. Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry. J. Virol. 78, 2943–2947 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. Tsuiji, M. et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mouse macrophage C-type lectin, mMGL2, which has a distinct carbohydrate specificity from mMGL1. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 28892–28901 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Palma, A.S. et al. Ligands for the β-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, assigned using “designer” microarrays of oligosaccharide probes (neoglycolipids) generated from glucan polysaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 5771–5779 (2006)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank members of the Immunobiology Laboratory (Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute) for discussions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Caetano Reis e Sousa.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Robinson, M., Sancho, D., Slack, E. et al. Myeloid C-type lectins in innate immunity. Nat Immunol 7, 1258–1265 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1417

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1417

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing