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Herpes simplex virus evades natural killer T cell recognition by suppressing CD1d recycling

Nature Immunology volume 7, pages 835842 (2006) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Natural killer T cells, which are stimulated by lipids presented by CD1d molecules, are crucial in antiviral host defense. How viruses evade natural killer T cell recognition remains unclear. Here we show that infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reduced CD1d surface expression on antigen-presenting cells. HSV-1 did not inhibit CD1d protein synthesis or enhance constitutive CD1d endocytosis. Instead, HSV-1 prevented the reappearance of endocytosed CD1d on the cell surface by redistributing endocytosed CD1d to the lysosome limiting membrane. HSV-1 might also inhibit the transport of newly synthesized CD1d to the cell surface. Such inhibition of CD1d surface expression impaired antigen-presenting cell–mediated stimulation of natural killer T cells, supporting the idea that this mechanism may be an important HSV-1 immune evasion strategy.

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Acknowledgements

We thank A. Iwasaki, R. Medzhitov, P. Lehner, A. Chow and D.R. Peaper for discussions, and M. Pypaert (Yale Cell Biology Imaging Facility, New Haven, Connecticut) for the immuno-electron microscopic analysis. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (AI059167 to P.C.), Howard Hughes Medical Institute (P.C.) and Cancer Research Institute (W.Y.).

Author information

Author notes

    • Anindya Dasgupta

    Present address: Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA.

Affiliations

  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8011, USA.

    • Weiming Yuan
    • , Anindya Dasgupta
    •  & Peter Cresswell

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Contributions

W.Y. and A.D. did the experiments; P.C. supervised the work.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter Cresswell.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Fig. 1

    CD1d is relocalized from internal vesicles to the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies after HSV-1 infection.

Videos

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Video 1

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of an infected Hela.CD1d.eGFP cell (24 h after infection with vhs-deficient HSV-1).

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1364

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