Inside sensors detecting outside pathogens

How innate immunity discriminates between noninvasive bacterial pathogens and commensals is unclear. The finding that epithelial cells recognize peptidoglycan fragments of Helicobacter pylori delivered by the type IV secretion system suggests an intriguing solution.

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Figure 1: Bacterial detection strategies in epithelial cells.

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Gregorio, E., Rappuoli, R. Inside sensors detecting outside pathogens. Nat Immunol 5, 1099–1100 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1104-1099

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