Jerne, N. K. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 32,591–603 (1967).
Bush, V. Science: The endless frontier (Government Printing Office, Washington DC, USA, 1945).
Glass, B. Science 171, 23–29 (1971); Glass, B. Quart. Rev. Biol. 54, 31–53 (1979). Gunther Stent had earlier declared the end of all progress in The Coming of the Golden Age: A view of the end of progress (Natural History Press, New York, 1969).
Koshland, D. E. Science 267, 1575 (1995). The true story of the affair is told in Jeffrey, E. J. Patent Off. Soc. 479–481 (July, 1940).
Sextus Julius Frontinus. Strategematicon [The Strategems], quoted in James, P. & Thorpe, N. Ancient Inventions 207–208 (Ballantine Books, New York, 1994).
For a more extensive discussion, see Silverstein, A. M. Hist. Sci. 37, 407–425 (1999).
See, for example, Lindley, D. The End of Physics (Basic Books, New York, 1993) and Horgan, J. The End of Science (Broadway Books, New York, 1997).
Michelson, A. A., in a speech quoted in part in Phys. Today 9 (April, 1968).
The quotation appears in Michelson, A. A Phys. Today 9 (April, 1968). Michelson attributed it to “an eminent physicist”. Robert Milliken suggested that Michelson meant Kelvin, but the attribution has never been substantiated.
Stephen Hawking would entitle his 1980 inaugural lecture as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge “Is the end of theoretical physics in sight?” Phys. Bull. 15–17 (January, 1981).
Ehrlich shared the 1908 Nobel prize with Elie Metchnikoff; both were rewarded for their impressive contributions to immunology.
See Silverstein, A. M. Cell. Immunol. 194, 213–221 (1999) and Nature Immunol. 1, 93–94 (2000).
Ehrlich, P. Klin. Jahrbuch 6, 299–326 (1897). (Translation in Ehlich, P. The Collected Papers Vol. 2, 107–125, Pergamon, London, 1957).
The English translations of the six hemolysis papers by Ehrlich, P. and Morgenroth, J. are in Ehrlich's. The Collected Papers Vol. 2, 150–155, 165–172, 205–212, 224–233, 246–255 & 278–297, Pergamon, London, 1957). See also Ehrlich's Croonian lecture Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 66, 424–448 (1900).
Ehrlich died in 1915, after having been nominated again for the Nobel Prize. G. Liljestrand suggested (in Nobel. The man and his prizes, 135–316, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, 1950) that had Ehrlich survived, he might well have been honored again.
Edelman, G. M. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 63, 78–85 (1969).
Pauling, L. The Nature of the Chemical Bond (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1939).
Breinl, F. & Haurowitz, F. Z. Physiol. Chemie 192, 45–57 (1930).
Pauling, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 2643–2657 (1940). Pauling and his students David Pressman and Dan Campbell would continue to study immunological specificity and the thermodynamics of the antigen-antibody interaction. See, for example, Pressman, D. & Grossberg, A. The Structural Basis of Antibody Specificity (Benjamin, New York, 1968).
Pauling, L. et al. Science 110, 64–66 (1949).
Lanouette, W. Genius in the Shadows: A biography of Leo Szilard (Scribner's, New York, 1992).
Szilard, L. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44, 293–302 (1960).
Lily Kay has discussed Delbrück's biology in detail in J. Hist. Biol. 18, 207–246 (1985).
Crick, F. What Mad Pursuits: A personal view of scientific discovery (Basic Books, New York, 1988).
Clapesattle, H. Dr. Webb of Colorado Springs, 401 (Colorado Associated University Press, Boulder, CO, 1984).
Jerne's initial “natural selection” theory appeared in Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 41, 849–857, 1955; Burnet's appeared in Aust. J. Sci. 20, 67–69 (1956) and The Clonal Selection Theory of Antibody Formation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1959); Talmage's appeared in Ann. Rev. Med. 8, 239–256 (1957) and Science 129, 1643–1648 (1959); and Lederberg's appeared in Science 129, 1649–1653 (1959).
This suggestion was made at an international symposium held in Prague in 1964 on molecular and cellular aspects of antibody formation, which the present author attended.
Jerne, N. K. Aust. Ann. Med. 18, 345–348 (1969).
Metchnikoff argued the case for the role of macrophages as the principal contributors to protective inflammation in The Comparative Pathology of Inflammation (Dover, New York, 1968), which was first published in French in 1891, and extended this argument to all of immunity in Immunity in the Infectious Diseases (The University Press, Cambridge, 1907), which was first published in French in 1901.
Virchow, R. lecture translated in Rather, L. J. Bull. Hist. Med. 30, 537–543 (1956). See page 538.
Kuhn, T. S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions edn 2 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1970).
See, for example, Lindley, D. The End of Physics, 255 (Basic Books, New York, 1993).
Medawar, P. B. The Limits of Science (Harper & Row, New York, 1984).