CD1 molecules bind foreign lipid antigens as they survey the endosomal compartments of infected antigen-presenting cells. Unlike T cells that recognize CD1-restricted foreign lipids, CD1-restricted T cells that are self-antigen–reactive function as 'auto-effectors' that are rapidly stimulated to carry out helper and effector functions upon interaction with CD1-expressing antigen-presenting cells. The functional distinctions between subsets of CD1-restricted T cells, and the pathways by which these cells both influence the inflammatory and tolerogenic effects of dendritic cells and activate natural killer cells and other lymphocytes, provide insight into how CD1-restricted T cells regulate antimicrobial responses, antitumor immunity and the balance between tolerance and autoimmunity.
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We thank C. Dascher for help with figures. This work was supported by the Arthritis Foundation (M.S.V.), the Charles A. King Trust of the Medical Foundation (J.E.G.) and grants R21AR48037 (M.S.V.) and R37AI29873 (M.B.B.) from the US National Institutes of Health.
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Vincent, M., Gumperz, J. & Brenner, M. Understanding the function of CD1-restricted T cells. Nat Immunol 4, 517–523 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni0603-517
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