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The expanding B7 superfamily: Increasing complexity in costimulatory signals regulating T cell function

Abstract

Upon encounter with specific antigen, naïve T helper precursor (THP) cells become activated. This event is regulated not only by engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) with peptide presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules but by a number of costimulatory signals. CD28 engagement by B7-1 and B7-2 on resting THP cells provides a critical signal for initial cell cycle progression, interleukin 2 production and clonal expansion. However, largely as a consequence of the unraveling of the human genome, it is becoming clear that B7-1 and B7-2 are part of a larger family of related counter-receptors that play an essential role in regulating the fate of primed, rather then resting, THP cells. These molecules play an important sequential role and act, together with B7-1– and B7-2–primed T cells, in the acquisition of effector function and/or tolerance induction.

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Figure 1: Phylogenetic alignmeny of human and mouse B7 family members.
Figure 2: Relative expression of B7 molecules in the immune system.
Figure 3: Distinct functions of B7 family members.
Figure 4: Complementary roles of B7-1 and B7-2 with B7RP-1 to regulate TH2 differentiation.
Figure 5: Coordinated role of the extended B7 family in the regulation of the immune response.

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Acknowledgements

We thank our colleagues and collaborators for their help and support in this work especially M. Kapsenburg, P. Limao Viera, G. Kingsbury, C. Fraser, J. Roftman, S. Manning, S. Tian and K. Kishimoto.

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Coyle, A., Gutierrez-Ramos, JC. The expanding B7 superfamily: Increasing complexity in costimulatory signals regulating T cell function. Nat Immunol 2, 203–209 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1038/85251

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