The prevailing paradigms ascribe the initiation of immune surveillance to the detection of foreign or inflammatory 'danger' signals. However, new work indicates that immune cells can detect early signs of cellular dysregulation that precede tumorigenesis, even in the absence of non-self signals and/or inflammation.
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Andrews, D., Smyth, M. Stress gets under your skin. Nat Immunol 9, 119–120 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni0208-119