Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Friendly and dangerous signals: is the tissue in control?

In their own defense, tissues send a panoply of signals that initiate immunity and guide the choice of effector class. TH1-TH2 and Treg is far too simple a representation of the breathtaking variety of the resulting responses.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Janeway, C.A. Jr., Immunol. Today 13, 11–16 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Matzinger, P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12, 991–1045 (1994).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Matzinger, P. Science 296, 301–305 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Seong, S. & Matzinger, P. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4, 469–478 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Takabayshi, K. et al. Immunity 24, 475–487 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Johansson, C. & Kelsall, B.L. Semin. Immunol. 17, 284–294 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Zamiri, P., Masli, S., Streilein, J.W. & Taylor, A.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 3912–3918 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Havran, W.L., Jameson, J.M. & Witherden, D.A. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 289, G627–G630 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Hayday, A., Theodoridis, E., Ramsburg, E. & Shires, J. Nat. Immunol. 2, 997–1003 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Bendelac, A., Bonneville, M. & Kearney, J.F. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1, 177–186 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Moffett, A. & Loke, C. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6, 584–594 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Matzinger, P. Friendly and dangerous signals: is the tissue in control?. Nat Immunol 8, 11–13 (2007).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing