Quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrition have a profound effect on leukocytes and thereby affect proinflammatory carcinogenic effects or anticancer immune responses. As a result, nutrition affects the incidence, natural progression and therapeutic response of malignant diseases, both in humans and in preclinical animal models. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms through which alimentary cues modulate metabolic, microbial and neuroendocrine circuitries and thus affect the probability of developing premalignant lesions that progress to clinically manifested disease and the response to therapeutic intervention. We examine each of the connections that compose the triangle of nutrition, immunological and inflammatory reactions and cancer while focusing on the mechanistic aspects of these relationships.
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G.K. is supported by the Ligue contre le Cancer (Équipe Labelisée); Agence National de la Recherche (ANR)—Projets Blancs; ANR, under the framework of E-Rare-2, ERA-Net for Research on Rare Diseases; Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC); Cancéropôle Ile-de-France; Institut National du Cancer (INCa); Institut Universitaire de France; Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM); European Commission (ArtForce); European Research Council (ERC); LeDucq Foundation; LabEx Immuno-Oncology; RHU Torino Lumière, SIRIC Stratified Oncology Cell DNA Repair and Tumor Immune Elimination (SOCRATE); SIRIC Cancer Research and Personalized Medicine (CARPEM); and Paris Alliance of Cancer Research Institutes (PACRI).
L.Z. and G.K. are founders of the biotechnology company EverImmune.
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Zitvogel, L., Pietrocola, F. & Kroemer, G. Nutrition, inflammation and cancer. Nat Immunol 18, 843–850 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3754
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