M cells sample gut lumenal antigens and microbes to induce gut immune responses. A novel population of stromal cell—the M cell inducers—are essential for sustaining M cell differentiation and bacteria-specific production of immunoglobulin A to maintain the gut–immune system symbiosis.
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The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Belz, G., Almeida, F. Unusual suspects: dancing with stromal cells. Nat Immunol 18, 601–602 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3741