Spits, H., Bernink, J.H. & Lanier, L. NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense. Nat. Immunol. 17, –http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3482 (2016).
Artis, D. & Spits, H. The biology of innate lymphoid cells. Nature 517, 293–301 (2015).
Diefenbach, A., Colonna, M. & Koyasu, S. Development, differentiation, and diversity of innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 41, 354–365 (2014).
Eberl, G., Colonna, M., Di Santo, J.P. & McKenzie, A.N. Innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells: a new paradigm in immunology. Science 348, aaa6566 (2015).
Spits, H. et al. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 13, 145–149 (2013).
Klose, C.S. et al. Differentiation of type 1 ILCs from a common progenitor to all helper-like innate lymphoid cell lineages. Cell 157, 340–356 (2014).
Hoyler, T. et al. The transcription factor GATA-3 controls cell fate and maintenance of type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 37, 634–648 (2012).
Mjösberg, J. et al. The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the function of human type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 37, 649–659 (2012).
Moro, K. et al. Innate production of TH2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit+Sca-1+ lymphoid cells. Nature 463, 540–544 (2010).
Neill, D.R. et al. Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature 464, 1367–1370 (2010).
Monticelli, L.A. et al. Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus. Nat. Immunol. 12, 1045–1054 (2011).
Sawa, S. et al. Lineage relationship analysis of RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells. Science 330, 665–669 (2010).
Klose, C.S. et al. A T-bet gradient controls the fate and function of CCR6-RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells. Nature 494, 261–265 (2013).
Cella, M. et al. A human natural killer cell subset provides an innate source of IL-22 for mucosal immunity. Nature 457, 722–725 (2009).
Eberl, G. et al. An essential function for the nuclear receptor RORγ(t) in the generation of fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Nat. Immunol. 5, 64–73 (2004).
Mebius, R.E., Rennert, P. & Weissman, I.L. Developing lymph nodes collect CD4+CD3−LTβ+ cells that can differentiate to APC, NK cells, and follicular cells but not T or B cells. Immunity 7, 493–504 (1997).
Gladiator, A., Wangler, N., Trautwein-Weidner, K. & LeibundGut-Landmann, S. Cutting edge: IL-17-secreting innate lymphoid cells are essential for host defense against fungal infection. J. Immunol. 190, 521–525 (2013).
Rankin, L.C. et al. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the development of NKp46+ innate lymphocytes via the Notch pathway. Nat. Immunol. 14, 389–395 (2013).
Satoh-Takayama, N. et al. Microbial flora drives interleukin 22 production in intestinal NKp46+ cells that provide innate mucosal immune defense. Immunity 29, 958–970 (2008).
Vonarbourg, C. et al. Regulated expression of nuclear receptor RORγt confers distinct functional fates to NK cell receptor-expressing RORγt+ innate lymphocytes. Immunity 33, 736–751 (2010).
Bernink, J.H. et al. Human type 1 innate lymphoid cells accumulate in inflamed mucosal tissues. Nat. Immunol. 14, 221–229 (2013).
Ishizuka, I.E. et al. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage. Nat. Immunol. 17, 269–276 (2016).
Lucas, M., Schachterle, W., Oberle, K., Aichele, P. & Diefenbach, A. Dendritic cells prime natural killer cells by trans-presenting interleukin 15. Immunity 26, 503–517 (2007).
Satoh-Takayama, N. et al. The chemokine receptor CXCR6 controls the functional topography of interleukin-22 producing intestinal innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 41, 776–788 (2014).
Peng, H. et al. Liver-resident NK cells confer adaptive immunity in skin-contact inflammation. J. Clin. Invest. 123, 1444–1456 (2013).
Gasteiger, G., Fan, X., Dikiy, S., Lee, S.Y. & Rudensky, A.Y. Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Science 350, 981–985 (2015).
Moro, K. et al. Interferon and IL-27 antagonize the function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and type 2 innate immune responses. Nat. Immunol. 17, 76–86 (2016).
Bando, J.K., Liang, H.E. & Locksley, R.M. Identification and distribution of developing innate lymphoid cells in the fetal mouse intestine. Nat. Immunol. 16, 153–160 (2015).
Kim, M.H., Taparowsky, E.J. & Kim, C.H. Retinoic acid differentially regulates the migration of innate lymphoid cell subsets to the gut. Immunity 43, 107–119 (2015).
Hepworth, M.R. et al. Immune tolerance. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4 T cells. Science 348, 1031–1035 (2015).
Fan, X. & Rudensky, A.Y. Hallmarks of tissue-resident lymphocytes. Cell 164, 1198–1211 (2016).
Bando, J.K. & Colonna, M. et al. Innate lymphoid cell function in the context of adaptive immunity. Nat. Immunol. 17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3484 (2016).
Robinette, M.L. et al. Immunological Genome Consortium. Transcriptional programs define molecular characteristics of innate lymphoid cell classes and subsets. Nat. Immunol. 16, 306–317 (2015).
Kim, B.S. et al. TSLP elicits IL-33-independent innate lymphoid cell responses to promote skin inflammation. Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 170ra16 (2013).
Roediger, B. et al. Cutaneous immunosurveillance and regulation of inflammation by group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat. Immunol. 14, 564–573 (2013).
Motomura, Y. et al. Basophil-derived interleukin-4 controls the function of natural helper cells, a member of ILC2s, in lung inflammation. Immunity 40, 758–771 (2014).
Wojno, E.D. et al. The prostaglandin D receptor CRTH2 regulates accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the inflamed lung. Mucosal Immunol. 8, 1313–1323 (2015).
Doherty, T.A. et al. Lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells express cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1, which regulates TH2 cytokine production. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 132, 205–213 (2013).
Meylan, F. et al. The TNF-family cytokine TL1A promotes allergic immunopathology through group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Mucosal Immunol. 7, 958–968 (2014).
Zheng, Y. et al. Interleukin-22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. Nat. Med. 14, 282–289 (2008).
Longman, R.S. et al. CX3 CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes support colitis-associated innate lymphoid cell production of IL-22. J. Exp. Med. 211, 1571–1583 (2014).
Hernández, P.P. et al. Interferon-λ and interleukin 22 act synergistically for the induction of interferon-stimulated genes and control of rotavirus infection. Nat. Immunol. 16, 698–707 (2015).
Kim, H.Y. et al. Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity. Nat. Med. 20, 54–61 (2014).
Hughes, T. et al. Interleukin-1β selectively expands and sustains interleukin-22+ immature human natural killer cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. Immunity 32, 803–814 (2010).
Cella, M., Otero, K. & Colonna, M. Expansion of human NK-22 cells with IL-7, IL-2, and IL-1β reveals intrinsic functional plasticity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 10961–10966 (2010).
Takatori, H. et al. Lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells are an innate source of IL-17 and IL-22. J. Exp. Med. 206, 35–41 (2009).
Halim, T.Y., Krauss, R.H., Sun, A.C. & Takei, F. Lung natural helper cells are a critical source of Th2 cell-type cytokines in protease allergen-induced airway inflammation. Immunity 36, 451–463 (2012).
Saenz, S.A. et al. IL-25 simultaneously elicits distinct populations of innate lymphoid cells and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPPtype2) cells. J. Exp. Med. 210, 1823–1837 (2013).
Huang, Y. et al. IL-25-responsive, lineage-negative KLRG1hi cells are multipotential 'inflammatory' type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat. Immunol. 16, 161–169 (2015).
Diefenbach, A. & Raulet, D.H. Innate immune recognition by stimulatory immunoreceptors. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15, 37–44 (2003).
Guerra, N. et al. NKG2D-deficient mice are defective in tumor surveillance in models of spontaneous malignancy. Immunity 28, 571–580 (2008).
Gazit, R. et al. Lethal influenza infection in the absence of the natural killer cell receptor gene Ncr1. Nat. Immunol. 7, 517–523 (2006).
Glatzer, T. et al. RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells acquire a proinflammatory program upon engagement of the activating receptor NKp44. Immunity 38, 1223–1235 (2013).
Satoh-Takayama, N. et al. The natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 is dispensable for IL-22-mediated innate intestinal immune defense against Citrobacter rodentium. J. Immunol. 183, 6579–6587 (2009).
Maazi, H. et al. ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction is required for type 2 innate lymphoid cell function, homeostasis, and induction of airway hyperreactivity. Immunity 42, 538–551 (2015).
Paclik, D., Stehle, C., Lahmann, A., Hutloff, A. & Romagnani, C. ICOS regulates the pool of group 2 innate lymphoid cells under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions in mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 45, 2766–2772 (2015).
Salimi, M. et al. A role for IL-25 and IL-33-driven type-2 innate lymphoid cells in atopic dermatitis. J. Exp. Med. 210, 2939–2950 (2013).
Gründemann, C. et al. The NK receptor KLRG1 is dispensable for virus-induced NK and CD8+ T-cell differentiation and function in vivo. Eur. J. Immunol. 40, 1303–1314 (2010).
Crellin, N.K., Trifari, S., Kaplan, C.D., Cupedo, T. & Spits, H. Human NKp44+IL-22+ cells and LTi-like cells constitute a stable RORC+ lineage distinct from conventional natural killer cells. J. Exp. Med. 207, 281–290 (2010).
Salimi, M. et al. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production. J. Immunol. 196, 45–54 (2016).
van de Pavert, S.A. et al. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity. Nature 508, 123–127 (2014).
Spencer, S.P. et al. Adaptation of innate lymphoid cells to a micronutrient deficiency promotes type 2 barrier immunity. Science 343, 432–437 (2014).
Veldhoen, M. & Brucklacher-Waldert, V. Dietary influences on intestinal immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 12, 696–708 (2012).
Kiss, E.A. et al. Natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands control organogenesis of intestinal lymphoid follicles. Science 334, 1561–1565 (2011).
Lee, J.S. et al. AHR drives the development of gut ILC22 cells and postnatal lymphoid tissues via pathways dependent on and independent of Notch. Nat. Immunol. 13, 144–151 (2012).
Qiu, J. et al. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates gut immunity through modulation of innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 36, 92–104 (2012).
Song, C. et al. Unique and redundant functions of NKp46+ ILC3s in models of intestinal inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 212, 1869–1882 (2015).
Nussbaum, J.C. et al. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. Nature 502, 245–248 (2013).
Wilhelm, C. et al. An IL-9 fate reporter demonstrates the induction of an innate IL-9 response in lung inflammation. Nat. Immunol. 12, 1071–1077 (2011).
Zenewicz, L.A. et al. Innate and adaptive interleukin-22 protects mice from inflammatory bowel disease. Immunity 29, 947–957 (2008).
Mortha, A. et al. Microbiota-dependent crosstalk between macrophages and ILC3 promotes intestinal homeostasis. Science 343, 1249288 (2014).
Sonnenberg, G.F., Monticelli, L.A., Elloso, M.M., Fouser, L.A. & Artis, D. CD4+ lymphoid tissue-inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut. Immunity 34, 122–134 (2011).
Zhang, B. et al. Viral infection. Prevention and cure of rotavirus infection via TLR5/NLRC4-mediated production of IL-22 and IL-18. Science 346, 861–865 (2014).
Buonocore, S. et al. Innate lymphoid cells drive interleukin-23-dependent innate intestinal pathology. Nature 464, 1371–1375 (2010).
Brestoff, J.R. et al. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity. Nature 519, 242–246 (2015).
Kruglov, A.A. et al. Nonredundant function of soluble LTα3 produced by innate lymphoid cells in intestinal homeostasis. Science 342, 1243–1246 (2013).
Goto, Y. et al. Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation. Science 345, 1254009 (2014).
van de Pavert, S.A. & Mebius, R.E. New insights into the development of lymphoid tissues. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10, 664–674 (2010).
Tumanov, A.V. et al. Lymphotoxin controls the IL-22 protection pathway in gut innate lymphoid cells during mucosal pathogen challenge. Cell Host Microbe 10, 44–53 (2011).
Ota, N. et al. IL-22 bridges the lymphotoxin pathway with the maintenance of colonic lymphoid structures during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Nat. Immunol. 12, 941–948 (2011).
Tsuji, M. et al. Requirement for lymphoid tissue-inducer cells in isolated follicle formation and T cell-independent immunoglobulin A generation in the gut. Immunity 29, 261–271 (2008).
Magri, G. et al. Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells. Nat. Immunol. 15, 354–364 (2014).
von Burg, N., Turchinovich, G. & Finke, D. Maintenance of Immune Homeostasis through ILC/T Cell Interactions. Front. Immunol. 6, 416 (2015).
Oliphant, C.J. et al. MHCII-mediated dialog between group 2 innate lymphoid cells and CD4+ T cells potentiates type 2 immunity and promotes parasitic helminth expulsion. Immunity 41, 283–295 (2014).
Duerr, C.U. et al. Type I interferon restricts type 2 immunopathology through the regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat. Immunol. 17, 65–75 (2016).
Molofsky, A.B. et al. Interleukin-33 and Interferon-γ counter-regulate group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation during immune perturbation. Immunity 43, 161–174 (2015).
Sawa, S. et al. RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal homeostasis by integrating negative signals from the symbiotic microbiota. Nat. Immunol. 12, 320–326 (2011).
Giacomin, P.R. et al. Epithelial-intrinsic IKKα expression regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell responses and antibacterial immunity. J. Exp. Med. 212, 1513–1528 (2015).
Gasteiger, G., Hemmers, S., Bos, P.D., Sun, J.C. & Rudensky, A.Y. IL-2-dependent adaptive control of NK cell homeostasis. J. Exp. Med. 210, 1179–1187 (2013).
Krishnamoorthy, N. et al. Cutting edge: maresin-1 engages regulatory T cells to limit type 2 innate lymphoid cell activation and promote resolution of lung inflammation. J. Immunol. 194, 863–867 (2015).
Barnig, C. & Levy, B.D. Innate immunity is a key factor for the resolution of inflammation in asthma. Eur. Resp. Rev. 24, 141–153 (2015).
Fallon, P.G. et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J. Exp. Med. 203, 1105–1116 (2006).
Fort, M.M. et al. IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo. Immunity 15, 985–995 (2001).
Zaiss, D.M. et al. Amphiregulin, a TH2 cytokine enhancing resistance to nematodes. Science 314, 1746 (2006).
Yasuda, K. et al. Contribution of IL-33-activated type II innate lymphoid cells to pulmonary eosinophilia in intestinal nematode-infected mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 3451–3456 (2012).
von Moltke, J., Ji, M., Liang, H.E. & Locksley, R.M. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit. Nature 529, 221–225 (2016).
Howitt, M.R. et al. Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut. Science 351, 1329–1333 (2016).
Gerbe, F. et al. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites. Nature 529, 226–230 (2016).
Wolk, K. et al. IL-22 increases the innate immunity of tissues. Immunity 21, 241–254 (2004).
Satpathy, A.T. et al. Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity to attaching-and-effacing bacterial pathogens. Nat. Immunol. 14, 937–948 (2013).
Rankin, L.C. et al. Complementarity and redundancy of IL-22-producing innate lymphoid cells. Nat. Immunol. 17, 179–186 (2016).
Basu, R. et al. Th22 cells are an important source of IL-22 for host protection against enteropathogenic bacteria. Immunity 37, 1061–1075 (2012).
Karo, J.M., Schatz, D.G. & Sun, J.C. The RAG recombinase dictates functional heterogeneity and cellular fitness in natural killer cells. Cell 159, 94–107 (2014).
Okada, S. et al. Immunodeficiencies. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations. Science 349, 606–613 (2015).
Sparber, F. & LeibundGut-Landmann, S. Interleukin 17-mediated host defense against Candida albicans. Pathogens 4, 606–619 (2015).
Nausch, N. et al. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 9, e0003627 (2015).
Boyd, A., Ribeiro, J.M. & Nutman, T.B. Human CD117 (cKit)+ innate lymphoid cells have a discrete transcriptional profile at homeostasis and are expanded during filarial infection. PLoS One 9, e108649 (2014).
Li, J., Zhang, Y. & Zhang, L. Discovering susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis and allergy using a genome-wide association study strategy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 15, 33–40 (2015).
Imai, Y. et al. Skin-specific expression of IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells and elicits atopic dermatitis-like inflammation in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 13921–13926 (2013).
Kim, B.S. et al. Basophils promote innate lymphoid cell responses in inflamed skin. J. Immunol. 193, 3717–3725 (2014).
Chang, Y.J. et al. Innate lymphoid cells mediate influenza-induced airway hyper-reactivity independently of adaptive immunity. Nat. Immunol. 12, 631–638 (2011).
Mjösberg, J.M. et al. Human IL-25- and IL-33-responsive type 2 innate lymphoid cells are defined by expression of CRTH2 and CD161. Nat. Immunol. 12, 1055–1062 (2011).
Duerr, R.H. et al. A genome-wide association study identifies IL23R as an inflammatory bowel disease gene. Science 314, 1461–1463 (2006).
Geremia, A. et al. IL-23-responsive innate lymphoid cells are increased in inflammatory bowel disease. J. Exp. Med. 208, 1127–1133 (2011).
Maloy, K.J. & Powrie, F. Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 474, 298–306 (2011).
Powell, N. et al. The transcription factor T-bet regulates intestinal inflammation mediated by interleukin-7 receptor+ innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 37, 674–684 (2012).
Fuchs, A. et al. Intraepithelial type 1 innate lymphoid cells are a unique subset of IL-12- and IL-15-responsive IFN-γ-producing cells. Immunity 38, 769–781 (2013).
Teunissen, M.B. et al. Composition of innate lymphoid cell subsets in the human skin: enrichment of NCR+ ILC3 in lesional skin and blood of psoriasis patients. J. Invest. Dermatol. 134, 2351–2360 (2014).
Villanova, F. et al. Characterization of innate lymphoid cells in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 134, 984–991 (2014).
Pantelyushin, S. et al. Rorγt+ innate lymphocytes and γδ T cells initiate psoriasiform plaque formation in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 122, 2252–2256 (2012).
Cording, S., Medvedovic, J., Aychek, T. & Eberl, G. ILCs in defense, immunopathology and immunotherapy. Nat. Immunol. 17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3448 (2016).
Monticelli, L.A. et al. IL-33 promotes an innate immune pathway of intestinal tissue protection dependent on amphiregulin-EGFR interactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 10762–10767 (2015).
Rak, G.D. et al. IL-33-Dependent group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote cutaneous wound healing. J. Invest. Dermatol. 136, 487–496 (2016).
McHedlidze, T. et al. Interleukin-33-dependent innate lymphoid cells mediate hepatic fibrosis. Immunity 39, 357–371 (2013).
Yokota, Y. et al. Development of peripheral lymphoid organs and natural killer cells depends on the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Nature 397, 702–706 (1999).
Dudakov, J.A. et al. Interleukin-22 drives endogenous thymic regeneration in mice. Science 336, 91–95 (2012).
Hanash, A.M. et al. Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells from immune-mediated tissue damage and regulates sensitivity to graft versus host disease. Immunity 37, 339–350 (2012).
Lindemans, C.A. et al. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration. Nature 528, 560–564 (2015).
Aparicio-Domingo, P. et al. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage. J. Exp. Med. 212, 1783–1791 (2015).
Sonnenberg, G.F. et al. Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria. Science 336, 1321–1325 (2012).
Duffin, R. et al. Prostaglandin E2 constrains systemic inflammation through an innate lymphoid cell-IL-22 axis. Science 351, 1333–1338 (2016).
Jovanovic, I.P. et al. Interleukin-33/ST2 axis promotes breast cancer growth and metastases by facilitating intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive and innate lymphoid cells. Int. J. Cancer 134, 1669–1682 (2014).
Ikutani, M. et al. Identification of innate IL-5-producing cells and their role in lung eosinophil regulation and antitumor immunity. J. Immunol. 188, 703–713 (2012).
Dadi, S. et al. Cancer Immunosurveillance by tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells and innate-like t cells. Cell 164, 365–377 (2016).
Eisenring, M., vom Berg, J., Kristiansen, G., Saller, E. & Becher, B. IL-12 initiates tumor rejection via lymphoid tissue-inducer cells bearing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. Nat. Immunol. 11, 1030–1038 (2010).
Carrega, P. et al. NCR+ ILC3 concentrate in human lung cancer and associate with intratumoral lymphoid structures. Nat. Commun. 6, 8280 (2015).
Huber, S. et al. IL-22BP is regulated by the inflammasome and modulates tumorigenesis in the intestine. Nature 491, 259–263 (2012).
Kirchberger, S. et al. Innate lymphoid cells sustain colon cancer through production of interleukin-22 in a mouse model. J. Exp. Med. 210, 917–931 (2013).
Qiu, Y. et al. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat. Cell 157, 1292–1308 (2014).
Wu, D. et al. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science 332, 243–247 (2011).
Brestoff, J.R. & Artis, D. Immune regulation of metabolic homeostasis in health and disease. Cell 161, 146–160 (2015).
Molofsky, A.B. et al. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 210, 535–549 (2013).
Hams, E., Locksley, R.M., McKenzie, A.N. & Fallon, P.G. Cutting edge: IL-25 elicits innate lymphoid type 2 and type II NKT cells that regulate obesity in mice. J. Immunol. 191, 5349–5353 (2013).
Lee, M.W. et al. Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis. Cell 160, 74–87 (2015).
Wang, X. et al. Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes. Nature 514, 237–241 (2014).
Halim, T.Y. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells in disease. Int. Immunol. 28, 13–22 (2016).