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Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system

Nature Immunology volume 16, pages 343353 (2015) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Y. Kumamoto for help with Table 1. Supported by the US National Institutes of Health (AI081884, AI062428 and AI064705 to A.I., and AI046688, AI089771 and DK071754 to R.M.), Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung (R.M.) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (A.I. and R.M.).

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  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Akiko Iwasaki
    •  & Ruslan Medzhitov

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Correspondence to Akiko Iwasaki or Ruslan Medzhitov.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3123