Starr, T.K., Jameson, S.C. & Hogquist, K.A. Positive and negative selection of T cells. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21, 139–176 (2003).
Morris, G.P. & Allen, P.M. How the TCR balances sensitivity and specificity for the recognition of self and pathogens. Nat. Immunol. 13, 121–128 (2012).
Gallo, E.M. et al. Calcineurin sets the bandwidth for discrimination of signals during thymocyte development. Nature 450, 731–735 (2007).
Parsons, S.A. et al. Genetic loss of calcineurin blocks mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle fiber type switching but not hypertrophy. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 26192–26200 (2004).
Li, Q.J. et al. miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection. Cell 129, 147–161 (2007).
Staton, T.L. et al. Dampening of death pathways by schnurri-2 is essential for T-cell development. Nature 472, 105–109 (2011).
Fischer, A.M., Katayama, C.D., Pages, G., Pouyssegur, J. & Hedrick, S.M. The role of erk1 and erk2 in multiple stages of T cell development. Immunity 23, 431–443 (2005).
Alberola-Lla, J., Forbush, K.A., Seger, R., Krebs, E.G. & Perlmutter, R.M. Selective requirement for MAP kinase activation in thymocyte differentiation. Nature 373, 620–623 (1995).
Wang, D. et al. Tespa1 is involved in late thymocyte development through the regulation of TCR-mediated signaling. Nat. Immunol. 13, 560–568 (2012).
Daniels, M.A. et al. Thymic selection threshold defined by compartmentalization of Ras/MAPK signalling. Nature 444, 724–729 (2006).
Fu, G. et al. Themis sets the signal threshold for positive and negative selection in T-cell development. Nature 504, 441–445 (2013).
Artyomov, M.N., Lis, M., Devadas, S., Davis, M.M. & Chakraborty, A.K. CD4 and CD8 binding to MHC molecules primarily acts to enhance Lck delivery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16916–16921 (2010).
Van Laethem, F. et al. Lck availability during thymic selection determines the recognition specificity of the T cell repertoire. Cell 154, 1326–1341 (2013).
Trobridge, P.A., Forbush, K.A. & Levin, S.D. Positive and negative selection of thymocytes depends on Lck interaction with the CD4 and CD8 coreceptors. J. Immunol. 166, 809–818 (2001).
Demetriou, M., Granovsky, M., Quaggin, S. & Dennis, J.W. Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation. Nature 409, 733–739 (2001).
Grigorian, A., Mkhikian, H. & Demetriou, M. Interleukin-2, interleukin-7, T cell-mediated autoimmunity, and N-glycosylation. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1253, 49–57 (2012).
Mkhikian, H. et al. Genetics and the environment converge to dysregulate N-glycosylation in multiple sclerosis. Nat. Commun. 2, 334 (2011).
Lee, S.U. et al. N-glycan processing deficiency promotes spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 33725–33734 (2007).
Chen, I.J., Chen, H.L. & Demetriou, M. Lateral compartmentalization of T cell receptor versus CD45 by galectin-N-glycan binding and microfilaments coordinate basal and activation signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 35361–35372 (2007).
Lau, K.S. et al. Complex N-glycan number and degree of branching cooperate to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell 129, 123–134 (2007).
Dennis, J.W., Nabi, I.R. & Demetriou, M. Metabolism, cell surface organization, and disease. Cell 139, 1229–1241 (2009).
Cummings, R.D. & Kornfeld, S. Characterization of the structural determinants required for the high affinity interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides with immobilized Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinating and erythroagglutinating lectins. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 11230–11234 (1982).
Grigorian, A. et al. Control of T cell-mediated autoimmunity by metabolite flux to N-glycan biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 20027–20035 (2007).
Metzler, M. et al. Complex asparagine-linked oligosaccharides are required for morphogenic events during post-implantation development. EMBO J. 13, 2056–2065 (1994).
Ioffe, E. & Stanley, P. Mice lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I activity die at mid-gestation, revealing an essential role for complex or hybrid N-linked carbohydrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 728–732 (1994).
Chen, W. & Stanley, P. Five Lec1 CHO cell mutants have distinct Mgat1 gene mutations that encode truncated N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Glycobiology 13, 43–50 (2003).
Rathmell, J.C., Lindsten, T., Zong, W.X., Cinalli, R.M. & Thompson, C.B. Deficiency in Bak and Bax perturbs thymic selection and lymphoid homeostasis. Nat. Immunol. 3, 932–939 (2002).
Bouillet, P. et al. Proapoptotic Bcl-2 relative Bim required for certain apoptotic responses, leukocyte homeostasis, and to preclude autoimmunity. Science 286, 1735–1738 (1999).
Grillot, D.A., Merino, R. & Nunez, G. Bcl-XL displays restricted distribution during T cell development and inhibits multiple forms of apoptosis but not clonal deletion in transgenic mice. J. Exp. Med. 182, 1973–1983 (1995).
Nika, K. et al. Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction. Immunity 32, 766–777 (2010).
Robertson, J.M., Jensen, P.E. & Evavold, B.D. DO11.10 and OT-II T cells recognize a C-terminal ovalbumin 323–339 epitope. J. Immunol. 164, 4706–4712 (2000).
Vidal, K., Daniel, C., Hill, M., Littman, D.R. & Allen, P.M. Differential requirements for CD4 in TCR-ligand interactions. J. Immunol. 163, 4811–4818 (1999).
Hampl, J., Chien, Y.H. & Davis, M.M. CD4 augments the response of a T cell to agonist but not to antagonist ligands. Immunity 7, 379–385 (1997).
Demotte, N. et al. Restoring the association of the T cell receptor with CD8 reverses anergy in human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Immunity 28, 414–424 (2008).
Partridge, E.A. et al. Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis. Science 306, 120–124 (2004).
Cainan, B.J., Szychowski, S., Chan, F.K., Cado, D. & Winoto, A. A role for the orphan steroid receptor Nur77 in apoptosis accompanying antigen-induced negative selection. Immunity 3, 273–282 (1995).
Bouillet, P. et al. BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim is required for apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. Nature 415, 922–926 (2002).
Villunger, A. et al. Negative selection of semimature CD4+8–HSA+ thymocytes requires the BH3-only protein Bim but is independent of death receptor signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 7052–7057 (2004).
Taylor-Fishwick, D.A. & Siegel, J.N. Raf-1 provides a dominant but not exclusive signal for the induction of CD69 expression on T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 25, 3215–3221 (1995).
Li, C.F. et al. Hypomorphic MGAT5 polymorphisms promote multiple sclerosis cooperatively with MGAT1 and interleukin-2 and -7 receptor variants. J. Neuroimmunol. 256, 71–76 (2013).
Brynedal, B. et al. MGAT5 alters the severity of multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 220, 120–124 (2010).
Grigorian, A. et al. Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis via environmental and genetic dysregulation of N-glycosylation. Semin. Immunopathol. 34, 415–424 (2012).
Yu, Z. et al. Family studies of type 1 diabetes reveal additive and epistatic effects between MGAT1 and three other polymorphisms. Genes Immun. 15, 218–223 (2014).
Huse, M. et al. Spatial and temporal dynamics of T cell receptor signaling with a photoactivatable agonist. Immunity 27, 76–88 (2007).
Shi, X. et al. Ca2+ regulates T-cell receptor activation by modulating the charge property of lipids. Nature 493, 111–115 (2013).
Gwack, Y. et al. Hair loss and defective T- and B-cell function in mice lacking ORAI1. Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 5209–5222 (2008).
Feske, S., Picard, C. & Fischer, A. Immunodeficiency due to mutations in ORAI1 and STIM1. Clin. Immunol. 135, 169–182 (2010).
Lee, P.P. et al. A critical role for Dnmt1 and DNA methylation in T cell development, function, and survival. Immunity 15, 763–774 (2001).