Yona, S. et al. Fate mapping reveals origins and dynamics of monocytes and tissue macrophages under homeostasis. Immunity 38, 79–91 (2013).
Hashimoto, D. et al. Tissue-resident macrophages self-maintain locally throughout adult life with minimal contribution from circulating monocytes. Immunity 38, 792–804 (2013).
Bain, C.C. et al. Constant replenishment from circulating monocytes maintains the macrophage pool in the intestine of adult mice. Nat. Immunol. 15, 929–937 (2014).
Epelman, S., Lavine, K.J. & Randolph, G.J. Origin and functions of tissue macrophages. Immunity 41, 21–35 (2014).
Ginhoux, F. & Jung, S. Monocytes and macrophages: developmental pathways and tissue homeostasis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14, 392–404 (2014).
Ginhoux, F. et al. Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages. Science 330, 841–845 (2010).
Hoeffel, G. et al. Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 209, 1167–1181 (2012).
Guilliams, M. et al. Alveolar macrophages develop from fetal monocytes that differentiate into long-lived cells in the first week of life via GM-CSF. J. Exp. Med. 10, 1977–1992 (2013).
Epelman, S. et al. Embryonic and adult-derived resident cardiac macrophages are maintained through distinct mechanisms at steady state and during inflammation. Immunity 40, 91–104 (2014).
Gautier, E.L. et al. Gene-expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways that underlie the identity and diversity of mouse tissue macrophages. Nat. Immunol. 13, 1118–1128 (2012).
Tontonoz, P. & Spiegelman, B.M. Fat and beyond: the diverse biology of PPARγ. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 289–312 (2008).
Tontonoz, P., Nagy, L., Alvarez, J.G., Thomazy, V.A. & Evans, R.M. PPARγ promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL. Cell 93, 241–252 (1998).
Ricote, M. et al. Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in human atherosclerosis and regulation in macrophages by colony stimulating factors and oxidized low density lipoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 7614–7619 (1998).
Ricote, M., Li, A.C., Willson, T.M., Kelly, C.J. & Glass, C.K. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ is a negative regulator of macrophage activation. Nature 391, 79–82 (1998).
Jiang, C., Ting, A.T. & Seed, B. PPAR-γ agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines. Nature 391, 82–86 (1998).
Szanto, A. et al. STAT6 transcription factor is a facilitator of the nuclear receptor PPARγ-regulated gene expression in macrophages and dendritic cells. Immunity 33, 699–712 (2010).
Bonfield, T.L. et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ is deficient in alveolar macrophages from patients with alveolar proteinosis. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29, 677–682 (2003).
Gautier, E.L. et al. Systemic analysis of PPARγ in mouse macrophage populations reveals marked diversity in expression with critical roles in resolution of inflammation and airway immunity. J. Immunol. 189, 2614–2624 (2012).
Bonfield, T.L. et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ regulates the expression of alveolar macrophage macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J. Immunol. 181, 235–242 (2008).
Imai, T. et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is required in mature white and brown adipocytes for their survival in the mouse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4543–4547 (2004).
Vermaelen, K. & Pauwels, R. Accurate and simple discrimination of mouse pulmonary dendritic cell and macrophage populations by flow cytometry: methodology and new insights. Cytometry 61, 170–177 (2004).
Moore, K.J. & Tabas, I. Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cell 145, 341–355 (2011).
Hochreiter-Hufford, A. & Ravichandran, K.S. Clearing the dead: apoptotic cell sensing, recognition, engulfment, and digestion. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 5, a008748 (2013).
Schulz, C. et al. A lineage of myeloid cells independent of Myb and hematopoietic stem cells. Science 336, 86–90 (2012).
O'Neill, L.A.J. & Hardie, D.G. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature 493, 346–355 (2013).
Schneider, C. et al. Alveolar macrophages are essential for protection from respiratory failure and associated morbidity following influenza virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 10, e1004053 (2014).
de Boer, J. et al. Transgenic mice with hematopoietic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre. Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314–325 (2003).
Greter, M. et al. Stroma-derived interleukin-34 controls the development and maintenance of langerhans cells and the maintenance of microglia. Immunity 37, 1050–1060 (2012).
Wang, Y. et al. IL-34 is a tissue-restricted ligand of CSF1R required for the development of Langerhans cells and microglia. Nat. Immunol. 13, 753–760 (2012).
Tall, A.R., Yvan-Charvet, L., Terasaka, N., Pagler, T. & Wang, N. HDL, ABC transporters, and cholesterol efflux: implications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 7, 365–375 (2008).
Johnson, J.L. & Newby, A.C. Macrophage heterogeneity in atherosclerotic plaques. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20, 370–378 (2009).
Mallat, Z., Lambeau, G. & Tedgui, A. Lipoprotein-associated and secreted phospholipases A in cardiovascular disease: roles as biological effectors and biomarkers. Circulation 122, 2183–2200 (2010).
Han, C.Z. & Ravichandran, K.S. Metabolic connections during apoptotic cell engulfment. Cell 147, 1442–1445 (2011).
Jakubzick, C. et al. Minimal differentiation of classical monocytes as they survey steady-state tissues and transport antigen to lymph nodes. Immunity 39, 599–610 (2013).
Malur, A. et al. Deletion of PPAR γ in alveolar macrophages is associated with a Th-1 pulmonary inflammatory response. J. Immunol. 182, 5816–5822 (2009).
Baker, A.D. et al. PPARγ regulates the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes in alveolar macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 393, 682–687 (2010).
Kohyama, M. et al. Role for Spi-C in the development of red pulp macrophages and splenic iron homeostasis. Nature 457, 318–321 (2009).
A-Gonzalez, N. et al. The nuclear receptor LXRα controls the functional specialization of splenic macrophages. Nat. Immunol. 14, 831–839 (2013).
Nakamura, A. et al. Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function. J. Exp. Med. 210, 2191–2204 (2013).
Okabe, Y. & Medzhitov, R. Tissue-specific signals control reversible program of localization and functional polarization of macrophages. Cell 157, 832–844 (2014).
Clausen, B.E., Burkhardt, C., Reith, W., Renkawitz, R. & Förster, I. Conditional gene targeting in macrophages and granulocytes using LysMcre mice. Transgenic Res. 8, 265–277 (1999).
Caton, M.L., Smith-Raska, M.R. & Reizis, B. Notch-RBP-J signaling controls the homeostasis of CD8- dendritic cells in the spleen. J. Exp. Med. 204, 1653–1664 (2007).
Luche, H., Weber, O., Nageswara Rao, T., Blum, C. & Fehling, H.J. Faithful activation of an extra-bright red fluorescent protein in “knock-in” Cre-reporter mice ideally suited for lineage tracing studies. Eur. J. Immunol. 37, 43–53 (2007).
Saeed, A.I. et al. TM4: a free, open-source system for microarray data management and analysis. Biotechniques 34, 374–378 (2003).
Saeed, A.I. et al. TM4 microarray software suite. Methods Enzymol. 411, 134–193 (2006).
Irizarry, R.A. Summaries of Affymetrix GeneChip probe level data. Nucleic Acids Res. 31, e15 (2003).
Thiele, C. et al. Tracing fatty acid metabolism by click chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 7, 2004–2011 (2012).