McCartney, S.A. & Colonna, M. Viral sensors: diversity in pathogen recognition. Immunol. Rev. 227, 87–94 (2009).
Kawai, T. & Akira, S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity. Immunity 34, 637–650 (2011).
Chevrier, N. et al. Systematic discovery of TLR signaling components delineates viral-sensing circuits. Cell 147, 853–867 (2011).
Yang, K. et al. Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-α/β and -λ is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses. Immunity 23, 465–478 (2005).
Kumar, H., Kawai, T. & Akira, S. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 388, 621–625 (2009).
Baltimore, D. et al. MicroRNAs: new regulators of immune cell development and function. Nat. Immunol. 9, 839–845 (2008).
Bartel, D.P. MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions. Cell 136, 215–233 (2009).
Taganov, K.D., Boldin, M.P., Chang, K.-J. & Baltimore, D. NF-κB-dependent induction of microRNA miR-146, an inhibitor targeted to signaling proteins of innate immune responses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12481–12486 (2006).
O'Connell, R.M. et al. MicroRNA-155 is induced during the macrophage inflammatory response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1604–1609 (2007).
Brown, B.D. et al. Endogenous microRNA can be broadly exploited to regulate transgene expression according to tissue, lineage and differentiation state. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 1457–1467 (2007).
O'Connell, R.M., Chaudhuri, A.A., Rao, D.S. & Baltimore, D. Inositol phosphatase SHIP1 is a primary target of miR-155. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7113–7118 (2009).
Zhou, H. et al. miR-155 and its star-form partner miR-155* cooperatively regulate type I interferon production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Blood 116, 5885–5894 (2010).
O'Neill, L.A., Sheedy, F.J. & McCoy, C.E. MicroRNAs: the fine-tuners of Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 163–175 (2011).
Fish, J.E. et al. miR-126 regulates angiogenic signaling and vascular integrity. Dev. Cell 15, 272–284 (2008).
Kuhnert, F. et al. Attribution of vascular phenotypes of the murine Egfl7 locus to the microRNA miR-126. Development 135, 3989–3993 (2008).
Wang, S. et al. The endothelial-specific microRNA miR-126 governs vascular integrity and angiogenesis. Dev. Cell 15, 261–271 (2008).
Brown, B.D. et al. In vivo administration of lentiviral vectors triggers a type I interferon response that restricts hepatocyte gene transfer and promotes vector clearance. Blood 109, 2797–2805 (2007).
Beignon, A.-S. et al. Endocytosis of HIV-1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor-viral RNA interactions. J. Clin. Invest. 115, 3265–3275 (2005).
Meylan, P.R., Guatelli, J.C., Munis, J.R., Richman, D.D. & Kornbluth, R.S. Mechanisms for the inhibition of HIV replication by interferons-α, -β, and -γ in primary human macrophages. Virology 193, 138–148 (1993).
Reizis, B., Bunin, A., Ghosh, H.S., Lewis, K.L. & Sisirak, V. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: recent progress and open questions. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 29, 163–183 (2011).
Colonna, M., Trinchieri, G. & Liu, Y.-J. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in immunity. Nat. Immunol. 5, 1219–1226 (2004).
Naik, S.H. et al. Development of plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cell subtypes from single precursor cells derived in vitro and in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 8, 1217–1226 (2007).
Cella, M. et al. Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon. Nat. Med. 5, 919–923 (1999).
Asselin-Paturel, C. et al. Type I interferon dependence of plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and migration. J. Exp. Med. 201, 1157–1167 (2005).
Vitour, D. & Meurs, E.F. Regulation of interferon production by RIG-I and LGP2: a lesson in self-control. Sci. STKE 2007, pe20 (2007).
Miller, J.C. et al. Deciphering the transcriptional network of the dendritic cell lineage. Nat. Immunol. 13, 888–899 (2012).
Krug, A. et al. IFN-producing cells respond to CXCR3 ligands in the presence of CXCL12 and secrete inflammatory chemokines upon activation. J. Immunol. 169, 6079–6083 (2002).
Li, H.S. et al. The signal transducers STAT5 and STAT3 control expression of Id2 and E2–2 during dendritic cell development. Blood 120, 4363–4373 (2012).
van de Laar, L. et al. PI3K-PKB hyperactivation augments human plasmacytoid dendritic cell development and function. Blood 120, 4982–4991 (2012).
Cao, W. et al. Toll-like receptor-mediated induction of type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells requires the rapamycin-sensitive PI(3)K-mTOR-p70S6K pathway. Nat. Immunol. 9, 1157–1164 (2008).
Quinn, T.P., Peters, K.G., De Vries, C., Ferrara, N. & Williams, L.T. Fetal liver kinase 1 is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 7533–7537 (1993).
Carmeliet, P. & Jain, R.K. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature 473, 298–307 (2011).
Ding, B.-S. et al. Inductive angiocrine signals from sinusoidal endothelium are required for liver regeneration. Nature 468, 310–315 (2010).
Ghosh, H.S., Cisse, B., Bunin, A., Lewis, K.L. & Reizis, B. Continuous expression of the transcription factor e2–2 maintains the cell fate of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunity 33, 905–916 (2010).
Grouard, G. et al. The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand. J. Exp. Med. 185, 1101–1111 (1997).
Siegal, F.P. et al. The nature of the principal type 1 interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 284, 1835–1837 (1999).
Stepkowski, S.M., Chen, W., Ross, J.A., Nagy, Z.S. & Kirken, R.A. STAT3: an important regulator of multiple cytokine functions. Transplantation 85, 1372–1377 (2008).
Plas, D.R. & Thomas, G. Tubers and tumors: rapamycin therapy for benign and malignant tumors. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 21, 230–236 (2009).
Guiducci, C. et al. PI3K is critical for the nuclear translocation of IRF-7 and type I IFN production by human plasmacytoid predendritic cells in response to TLR activation. J. Exp. Med. 205, 315–322 (2008).
Conrad, C. et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote immunosuppression in ovarian cancer via ICOS costimulation of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells. Cancer Res. 72, 5240–5249 (2012).
Ferrara, N., Mass, R.D., Campa, C. & Kim, R. Targeting VEGF-A to treat cancer and age-related macular degeneration. Annu. Rev. Med. 58, 491–504 (2007).
Nestle, F.O. et al. Plasmacytoid predendritic cells initiate psoriasis through interferon-alpha production. J. Exp. Med. 202, 135–143 (2005).
Lande, R. et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense self-DNA coupled with antimicrobial peptide. Nature 449, 564–569 (2007).
Guiducci, C. et al. Autoimmune skin inflammation is dependent on plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by nucleic acids via TLR7 and TLR9. J. Exp. Med. 207, 2931–2942 (2010).
Diana, J. et al. Crosstalk between neutrophils, B-1a cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells initiates autoimmune diabetes. Nat. Med. 19, 65–73 (2013).
Banchereau, J. & Pascual, V. Type I interferon in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Immunity 25, 383–392 (2006).
Wang, H., Peng, W., Ouyang, X., Li, W. & Dai, Y. Circulating microRNAs as candidate biomarkers in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Transl. Res. 160, 198–206 (2012).
Janssen, H.L.A. et al. Treatment of HCV infection by targeting microRNA. N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 1685–1694 (2013).
O'Connell, R.M. et al. MicroRNA-155 promotes autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development. Immunity 33, 607–619 (2010).
Agudo, J. et al. A TLR and non-TLR mediated innate response to lentiviruses restricts hepatocyte entry and can be ameliorated by pharmacological blockade. Mol. Ther. 20, 2257–2267 (2012).