Article | Published:

Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via the Fc receptor TRIM21

Nature Immunology volume 14, pages 327336 (2013) | Download Citation

Abstract

During pathogen infection, antibodies can be carried into the infected cell, where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we found that recognition of intracellular antibodies by TRIM21 activated immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyzed the formation of Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains and stimulated the transcription factor pathways of NF-κB, AP-1, IRF3, IRF5 and IRF7. Activation resulted in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, modulation of natural killer stress ligands and induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling was abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and was restored by ectopic expression of TRIM21. The sensing of antibodies by TRIM21 was stimulated after infection by DNA or RNA nonenveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. Thus, the antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive activation of the innate immune system independently of known pattern-recognition receptors.

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Acknowledgements

We thank M. Peeples (Nationwide Children's Hospital) for RSV; and D. Brown (University of Cambridge) for FCV. Supported by the Medical Research Council (U105181010), the European Research Council (281627-IAI) and the Frank Edward Elmore Fund of the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine (J.C.H.T.).

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Affiliations

  1. Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    • William A McEwan
    • , Jerry C H Tam
    • , Ruth E Watkinson
    • , Susanna R Bidgood
    • , Donna L Mallery
    •  & Leo C James

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Contributions

W.A.M. and L.C.J. initiated the study; W.A.M., J.C.H.T. and L.C.J. wrote the manuscript; and all authors conceived of and did experiments, analyzed data, edited the manuscript and prepared figures.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to William A McEwan or Leo C James.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.2548

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