Vaccines represent one of the greatest triumphs of modern medicine. Despite the common origins of vaccinology and immunology more than 200 years ago, the two disciplines have evolved along such different trajectories that most of the highly successful vaccines have been made empirically, with little or no immunological insight. Recent advances in innate immunity have offered new insights about the mechanisms of vaccine-induced immunity and have facilitated a more rational approach to vaccine design. Here we will discuss these advances and emerging themes on the immunology of vaccination.
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We thank S. Plotkin for discussions; F. Sallusto for sharing the table on which Figure 1 is based; and M. Kwissa and H. Nakaya for helping with the formatting and art work for the figures. Supported by the US National Institutes of Health and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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