Janeway, C.A. & Medzhitov, R. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20, 197–216 (2002).
Kawai, T. & Akira, S. TLR signaling. Semin. Immunol. 19, 24–32 (2007).
O'Neill, L.A.J. & Bowie, A.G. The family of five: TIR-domain-containing adaptors in Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7, 353–364 (2007).
Ravasi, T., Wells, C.A. & Hume, D.A. Systems biology of transcription control in macrophages. Bioessays 29, 1215–1226 (2007).
Roach, J.C. et al. Transcription factor expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated peripheral-blood-derived mononuclear cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 16245–16250 (2007).
Gilchrist, M. et al. Systems biology approaches identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature 441, 173–178 (2006).
Kono, H. & Rock, K.L. How dying cells alert the immune system to danger. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 279–289 (2008).
Medzhitov, R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature 454, 428–435 (2008).
Sansonetti, P.J. The innate signaling of dangers and the dangers of innate signaling. Nat. Immunol. 7, 1237–1242 (2006).
Ron, D. & Walter, P. Signal integration in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 519–529 (2007).
Lin, J.H. et al. IRE1 signaling affects cell fate during the unfolded protein response. Science 318, 944–949 (2007).
Nau, G.J. et al. Human macrophage activation programs induced by bacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1503–1508 (2002).
Blumenthal, A. et al. Common and unique gene expression signatures of human macrophages in response to four strains of Mycobacterium avium that differ in their growth and persistence characteristics. Infect. Immun. 73, 3330–3341 (2005).
Schurr, J.R. et al. Central role of toll-like receptor 4 signaling and host defense in experimental pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Infect. Immun. 73, 532–545 (2005).
Goodall, J.C., Ellis, L., Yeo, G.S.H. & Gaston, J.S.H. Does HLA-B27 influence the monocyte inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide? Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 232–237 (2007).
Endo, M., Oyadomari, S., Suga, M., Mori, M. & Gotoh, T. The ER stress pathway involving CHOP is activated in the lungs of LPS-treated mice. J. Biochem. 138, 501–507 (2005).
Zhang, K. et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates cleavage of CREBH to induce a systemic inflammatory response. Cell 124, 587–599 (2006).
Ishiai, M. et al. FANCI phosphorylation functions as a molecular switch to turn on the Fanconi anemia pathway. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 15, 1138–1146 (2008).
Sha, H. et al. The IRE1alpha-XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response is required for adipogenesis. Cell Metab. 9, 556–564 (2009).
Matsuzawa, A. et al. ROS-dependent activation of the TRAF6-ASK1-p38 pathway is selectively required for TLR4-mediated innate immunity. Nat. Immunol. 6, 587–592 (2005).
Takeshita, F. et al. TRAF4 acts as a silencer in TLR-mediated signaling through the association with TRAF6 and TRIF. Eur. J. Immunol. 35, 2477–2485 (2005).
Ha, Y.J. & Lee, J.R. Role of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 in the CD40 signaling by production of reactive oxygen species through association with p40phox, a cytosolic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. J. Immunol. 172, 231–239 (2004).
Grandvaux, N., Soucy-Faulkner, A. & Fink, K. Innate host defense: Nox and Duox on phox's tail. Biochimie 89, 1113–1122 (2007).
Malhotra, J.D. & Kaufman, R.J. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress: a vicious cycle or a double-edged sword? Antioxid. Redox Signal. 9, 2277–2293 (2007).
Lee, A.-H., Scapa, E., Cohen, D. & Glimcher, L. Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1. Science 320, 1492 (2008).
Lisbona, F. et al. BAX inhibitor-1 is a negative regulator of the ER stress sensor IRE1alpha. Mol. Cell 33, 679–691 (2009).
Rick Lyons, C. & Wu, T.H. Animal models of Francisella tularensis infection. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1105, 238–265 (2007).
Cole, L.E. et al. Immunologic consequences of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain infection: role of the innate immune response in infection and immunity. J. Immunol. 176, 6888–6899 (2006).
Katz, J., Zhang, P., Martin, M., Vogel, S.N. & Michalek, S.M. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for inflammatory responses to Francisella tularensis LVS. Infect. Immun. 74, 2809–2816 (2006).
Cole, L.E et al. TLR2-mediated signaling requirements for Francisella tularensis LVS infection of murine macrophages. Infect. Immun. 75, 4127–4137 (2007).
Elkins, K.L., Cowley, S.C. & Bosio, C.M. Innate and adaptive immunity to Francisella. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1105, 284–324 (2007).
Malik, M. et al. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for control of pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis. Infect. Immun. 74, 3657–3662 (2006).
Abplanalp, A.L., Morris, I.R., Parida, B.K., Teale, J.M. & Berton, M.T. TLR-dependent control of Francisella tularensis infection and host inflammatory responses. PLoS ONE 4, e7920 (2009).
Elkins, K.L., Bosio, C.M. & Rhinehart-Jones, T.R. Importance of B cells, but not specific antibodies, in primary and secondary protective immunity to the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. Infect. Immun. 67, 6002–6007 (1999).
Zhang, K. & Kaufman, R.J. From endoplasmic-reticulum stress to the inflammatory response. Nature 454, 455–462 (2008).
Hu, P., Han, Z., Couvillon, A.D., Kaufman, R.J. & Exton, J.H. Autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha links endoplasmic reticulum stress to the membrane death receptor pathway through IRE1α-mediated NF-κB activation and down-regulation of TRAF2 expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 3071–3084 (2006).
Urano, F. et al. Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1. Science 287, 664–666 (2000).
Xue, X. et al. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent fashion, and the UPR counteracts ROS accumulation by TNFα. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 33917–33925 (2005).
Woo, C.W. et al. Adaptive suppression of the ATF4-CHOP branch of the unfolded protein response by toll-like receptor signalling. Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 1473–1480 (2009).
Negishi, H. et al. Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15989–15994 (2005).
Honma, K. et al. Interferon regulatory factor 4 negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in response to LPS. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16001–16006 (2005).
Litvak, V. et al. Function of C/EBPδ in a regulatory circuit that discriminates between transient and persistent TLR4-induced signals. Nat. Immunol. 10, 437–443 (2009).
Smith, J.A. et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response are linked to synergistic IFN-β induction via X-box binding protein 1. Eur. J. Immunol. 38, 1194–1203 (2008).
Bischof, L.J. et al. Activation of the unfolded protein response is required for defenses against bacterial pore-forming toxin in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000176 (2008).
Schröder, M., Clark, R., Liu, C.Y. & Kaufman, R.J. The unfolded protein response represses differentiation through the RPD3–SIN3 histone deacetylase. EMBO J. 23, 2281–2292 (2004).
Delay, M.L. et al. HLA-B27 misfolding and the unfolded protein response augment interleukin-23 production and are associated with Th17 activation in transgenic rats. Arthritis Rheum. 60, 2633–2643 (2009).
Lin, J.H., Walter, P. & Yen, T.S. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in disease pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Pathol. 3, 399–425 (2008).
Kaser, A. et al. XBP1 links ER stress to intestinal inflammation and confers genetic risk for human inflammatory bowel disease. Cell 134, 743–756 (2008).
Ozcan, U. et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes. Science 306, 457–461 (2004).
Yamamoto, K. et al. Transcriptional induction of mammalian ER quality control proteins is mediated by single or combined action of ATF6α and XBP1. Dev. Cell 13, 365–376 (2007).
Martinon, F., Pétrilli, V., Mayor, A., Tardivel, A. & Tschopp, J. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature 440, 237–241 (2006).
Iwakoshi, N.N. et al. Plasma cell differentiation and the unfolded protein response intersect at the transcription factor XBP-1. Nat. Immunol. 4, 321–329 (2003).
Bhoj, V.G. & Chen, Z.J. Linking retroelements to autoimmunity. Cell 134, 569–571 (2008).
Summerton, J.E. Endo-Porter: a novel reagent for safe, effective delivery of substances into cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1058, 62–75 (2005).