Cytokines are soluble mediators of cell communication that are critical in immune regulation. They induce specific gene-expression programs in responsive cells. Recent findings, however, indicate that cytokine receptors can regulate immune cell functions by transcription-independent mechanisms. Here we review the current understanding of how cytokine signaling regulates the functions of other signaling pathways by first discussing the 'traditional' transcription-mediated consequences of cytokine signaling and then providing a detailed description of transcription-independent lateral communications between cytokine receptors and other cellular receptors.
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We apologize to the many authors whose work we could not cite directly because of space limitations. We thank N. Palm, L. Kopp and I. Brodsky for discussions and reading of the manuscript. Supported by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (J.S.B. and R.M.) and Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation (J.S.B.).
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Bezbradica, J., Medzhitov, R. Integration of cytokine and heterologous receptor signaling pathways. Nat Immunol 10, 333–339 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.1713
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