Szabo, S.J. et al. A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment. Cell 100, 655–669 (2000).
Zheng, W. & Flavell, R.A. The transcription factor GATA-3 is necessary and sufficient for Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T cells. Cell 89, 587–596 (1997).
Ivanov, I.I. et al. The orphan nuclear receptor RORγt directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell 126, 1121–1133 (2006).
Ouyang, W., Kolls, J.K. & Zheng, Y. The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation. Immunity 28, 454–467 (2008).
Korn, T., Oukka, M., Kuchroo, V. & Bettelli, E. Th17 cells: effector T cells with inflammatory properties. Semin. Immunol. 19, 362–371 (2007).
Battaglia, M., Gregori, S., Bacchetta, R. & Roncarolo, M.G. Tr1 cells: from discovery to their clinical application. Semin. Immunol. 18, 120–127 (2006).
Hori, S., Takahashi, T. & Sakaguchi, S. Control of autoimmunity by naturally arising regulatory CD4+ T cells. Adv. Immunol. 81, 331–371 (2003).
Hori, S., Nomura, T. & Sakaguchi, S. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299, 1057–1061 (2003).
Kretschmer, K. et al. Inducing and expanding regulatory T cell populations by foreign antigen. Nat. Immunol. 6, 1219–1227 (2005).
Apostolou, I. & von Boehmer, H. In vivo instruction of suppressor commitment in naive T cells. J. Exp. Med. 199, 1401–1408 (2004).
Chen, W. et al. Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25− naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-β induction of transcription factor Foxp3. J. Exp. Med. 198, 1875–1886 (2003).
Bettelli, E. et al. Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature 441, 235–238 (2006).
Wan, Y.Y. & Flavell, R.A. Regulatory T-cell functions are subverted and converted owing to attenuated Foxp3 expression. Nature 445, 766–770 (2007).
Wei, J. et al. Antagonistic nature of T helper 1/2 developmental programs in opposing peripheral induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18169–18174 (2007).
Mantel, P.Y. et al. GATA3-driven Th2 responses inhibit TGF-β1-induced FOXP3 expression and the formation of regulatory T cells. PLoS Biol. 5, e329 (2007).
Awasthi, A. et al. A dominant function for interleukin 27 in generating interleukin 10–producing anti-inflammatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 8, 1380–1389 (2007).
Stumhofer, J.S. et al. Interleukins 27 and 6 induce STAT3-mediated T cell production of interleukin 10. Nat. Immunol. 8, 1363–1371 (2007).
Ishida, H. et al. Continuous administration of anti-interleukin 10 antibodies delays onset of autoimmunity in NZB/W F1 mice. J. Exp. Med. 179, 305–310 (1994).
Llorente, L. et al. Role of interleukin 10 in the B lymphocyte hyperactivity and autoantibody production of human systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Exp. Med. 181, 839–844 (1995).
Van Snick, J. et al. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA for a new mouse T cell growth factor (P40). J. Exp. Med. 169, 363–368 (1989).
Faulkner, H., Humphreys, N., Renauld, J.C., Van Snick, J. & Grencis, R. Interleukin-9 is involved in host protective immunity to intestinal nematode infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 27, 2536–2540 (1997).
Kamanaka, M. et al. Expression of interleukin-10 in intestinal lymphocytes detected by an interleukin-10 reporter knockin tiger mouse. Immunity 25, 941–952 (2006).
Bettelli, E., Korn, T., Oukka, M. & Kuchroo, V.K. Induction and effector functions of TH17 cells. Nature 453, 1051–1057 (2008).
Wurster, A.L., Withers, D.J., Uchida, T., White, M.F. & Grusby, M.J. Stat6 and IRS-2 cooperate in interleukin 4 (IL-4)-induced proliferation and differentiation but are dispensable for IL-4-dependent rescue from apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 117–126 (2002).
Li, M.O. & Flavell, R.A. Contextual regulation of inflammation: a duet by transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10. Immunity 28, 468–476 (2008).
Izcue, A., Coombes, J.L. & Powrie, F. Regulatory T cells suppress systemic and mucosal immune activation to control intestinal inflammation. Immunol. Rev. 212, 256–271 (2006).
Uhlig, H.H. et al. Characterization of Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ and IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25+ T cells during cure of colitis. J. Immunol. 177, 5852–5860 (2006).
Read, S., Malmstrom, V. & Powrie, F. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 192, 295–302 (2000).
Kaplan, M.H. & Grusby, M.J. Regulation of T helper cell differentiation by STAT molecules. J. Leukoc. Biol. 64, 2–5 (1998).
Ziegler-Heitbrock, L. et al. IFN-α induces the human IL-10 gene by recruiting both IFN regulatory factor 1 and Stat3. J. Immunol. 171, 285–290 (2003).
Zhou, L. et al. TGF-β-induced Foxp3 inhibits TH17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORγt function. Nature 453, 236–240 (2008).
Hoffmann, K.F., Cheever, A.W. & Wynn, T.A. IL-10 and the dangers of immune polarization: excessive type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses induce distinct forms of lethal immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis. J. Immunol. 164, 6406–6416 (2000).
Li, C., Corraliza, I. & Langhorne, J. A defect in interleukin-10 leads to enhanced malarial disease in Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 67, 4435–4442 (1999).
Gazzinelli, R.T., Oswald, I.P., James, S.L. & Sher, A. IL-10 inhibits parasite killing and nitrogen oxide production by IFN-γ-activated macrophages. J. Immunol. 148, 1792–1796 (1992).
Boussiotis, V.A. et al. IL-10-producing T cells suppress immune responses in anergic tuberculosis patients. J. Clin. Invest. 105, 1317–1325 (2000).
Carvalho, E.M. et al. Restoration of IFN-γ production and lymphocyte proliferation in visceral leishmaniasis. J. Immunol. 152, 5949–5956 (1994).
King, C.L. et al. Cytokine control of parasite-specific anergy in human urinary schistosomiasis. IL-10 modulates lymphocyte reactivity. J. Immunol. 156, 4715–4721 (1996).
Makela, M.J. et al. IL-10 is necessary for the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness but not pulmonary inflammation after allergic sensitization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 6007–6012 (2000).
Rubtsov, Y.P. et al. Regulatory T cell-derived interleukin-10 limits inflammation at environmental interfaces. Immunity 28, 546–558 (2008).
Temann, U.A., Geba, G.P., Rankin, J.A. & Flavell, R.A. Expression of interleukin 9 in the lungs of transgenic mice causes airway inflammation, mast cell hyperplasia, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J. Exp. Med. 188, 1307–1320 (1998).
Temann, U.A., Ray, P. & Flavell, R.A. Pulmonary overexpression of IL-9 induces Th2 cytokine expression, leading to immune pathology. J. Clin. Invest. 109, 29–39 (2002).
Lu, L.F. et al. Mast cells are essential intermediaries in regulatory T-cell tolerance. Nature 442, 997–1002 (2006).
Tepper, R.I. et al. IL-4 induces allergic-like inflammatory disease and alters T cell development in transgenic mice. Cell 62, 457–467 (1990).
Annacker, O. et al. Essential role for CD103 in the T cell-mediated regulation of experimental colitis. J. Exp. Med. 202, 1051–1061 (2005).
Fahlen, L. et al. T cells that cannot respond to TGF-β escape control by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 201, 737–746 (2005).