Initial analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions indicated that the Moon was essentially devoid of water. However, improved analytical techniques have revealed that pyroclastic glass beads in Apollo samples contain measurable amounts of water. Taking into account volatile loss during eruption of the glass beads onto the surface, the pre-eruption magma could have contained water on the order of 100 ppm by weight, concentrations that are similar to the mantle sources of mid-ocean ridge basalts on Earth. Lava flows from vast basaltic plains — the lunar maria — also contain appreciable amounts of water, as shown by analyses of apatite in mare basalt samples. In contrast, apatite in most non-mare rocks contains much less water than the mare basalts and glass beads. The hydrogen isotopic composition of lunar samples is relatively similar to that of the Earth's interior, but the deuterium to hydrogen ratios obtained from lunar samples seem to have a larger range than found in Earth's mantle. Thus, measurements of water concentration and hydrogen isotopic composition suggest that water is heterogeneously distributed in the Moon and varies in isotopic composition. The variability in the Moon's water may reflect heterogeneity in accretion processes, redistribution during differentiation or later additions by volatile-rich impactors.
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This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the NASA Astrobiology Institute under Cooperative Agreement No. NNA09DA77A issued through the Office of Space Science, and by NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Grant NNX11AE85G. We thank all colleagues working on water in the Moon for lively and informative discussions.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Robinson, K., Taylor, G. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the Moon. Nature Geosci 7, 401–408 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2173
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