Most oceanic plateaux are massive basaltic volcanoes. However, the structure of these volcanoes, and how they erupt and evolve, is unclear, because they are remote and submerged beneath the oceans. Here we use multichannel seismic profiles and rock samples taken from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core sites to analyse the structure of the Tamu Massif, the oldest and largest edifice of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the north-western Pacific Ocean. We show that the Tamu Massif is a single, immense volcano, constructed from massive lava flows that emanated from the volcano centre to form a broad, shield-like shape. The volcano has anomalously low slopes, probably due to the high effusion rates of the erupting lavas. We suggest that the Tamu Massif could be the largest single volcano on Earth and that it is comparable in size to the largest volcano in the Solar System, Olympus Mons on Mars. Our data document a class of oceanic volcanoes that is distinguished by its size and morphology from the thousands of seamounts found throughout the oceans.
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This research used data provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. IODP is sponsored by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and participating countries under management by Consortium for Ocean Leadership. We thank the captain and crew onboard the R/V Marcus G. Langseth for assistance in collecting seismic data. We gratefully acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Robert Steinhaus and his team for seismic data acquisition. This research was supported by NSF grants OCE-0926611 and OCE-0926945.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Sager, W., Zhang, J., Korenaga, J. et al. An immense shield volcano within the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean. Nature Geosci 6, 976–981 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1934
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