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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, UK

    • Alexander Otto
    • , Friederike E. L. Otto
    •  & Myles R. Allen
  2. Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL/CNRS, UPMC, Paris, France

    • Olivier Boucher
  3. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Hobart, Castray Esplanade, Hobart Tasmani 7000, Australia

    • John Church
  4. Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK

    • Gabi Hegerl
  5. School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

    • Piers M. Forster
  6. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, PO Box 3065 STNCSC, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    • Nathan P. Gillett
  7. Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, PO Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB, UK

    • Jonathan Gregory
  8. NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, Washington 98115, USA

    • Gregory C. Johnson
  9. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

    • Reto Knutti
    •  & Ulrike Lohmann
  10. Walden, Widcombe Hill, Bath, BA2 6ED, UK

    • Nicholas Lewis
  11. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraße 53, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany

    • Jochem Marotzke
    •  & Bjorn Stevens
  12. CICERO, P.O. Box 1129 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway

    • Gunnar Myhre
  13. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, New York 10025, USA

    • Drew Shindell
  14. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK

    • Myles R. Allen

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Contributions

O.B., J.C., G.H., P.F., N.P.G., J.G., G.C.J., R.K., N.L., U.L., J.M., G.M., D.S., B.S., and M.R.A. conceived the analysis and designed the headline figure. P.M.F. provided the forcing data and estimates. G.C.J. provided the heat content data. A.O. conducted the analysis and produced the figures. A.O., F.E.L.O., M.R.A., P.M.F., O.B., and G.C.J contributed to writing the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander Otto.

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About this article

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1836

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