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Pulses of carbon dioxide emissions from intracrustal faults following climatic warming

Abstract

Carbon capture and geological storage represents a potential means of managing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Understanding the role of faults, as either barriers or conduits to the flow of carbon dioxide, is crucial for predicting the long-term integrity of geological storage sites. Of particular concern is the influence of geochemical reactions on the sealing behaviour of faults and the impact of seismicity and stress regime on fault stability. Here, we examine a 135,000-year palaeorecord of carbon dioxide leakage from a faulted, natural carbon dioxide reservoir in Utah. We assess the isotope and trace-element composition of U–Th-dated carbonate veins, deposited by carbon-dioxide-rich fluids. Temporal changes in vein geochemistry reveal pulses of carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir from deeper formations. Surface leakage rates increase by several orders of magnitude following these pulses. We show that each pulse occurs around 100–2,000 years after the onset of significant local climatic warming, at glacial to interglacial transitions. We suggest that carbon dioxide leakage rates increase as a result of fracture opening, potentially caused by changes in groundwater hydrology, the intermittent presence of a buoyant gas cap and postglacial crustal unloading of regions surrounding the fault.

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Figure 1: Location maps.
Figure 2: Isotope and trace-element ratios of U–Th-dated aragonite veins and travertine growth rates.
Figure 3: Vein stable isotopic compositions.
Figure 4: Field photographs from Salt Wash Graben.

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Acknowledgements

Carbon-storage research at Cambridge is supported by the Natural Environment Research Council grant NE/F004699/1. This research was made possible by financial support for N.K. from Shell Global Solutions International. N.M.B. was supported by NER/S/A/2006/14354. N.K. would like to thank M. Hall in the Godwin Laboratories, Cambridge, for assistance with stable isotope analysis.

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This work was conceived by N.K. and M.J.B. U–Th dating was carried out by N.M.B. at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, with support from Z.K.S. and R.M.E. Stable isotope analyses were carried out in the Godwin Laboratory, Cambridge. Trace-element analyses were carried out by N.K. and H.J.C. and N.K. carried out the Sr-isotope analyses. N.K. wrote the initial draft and M.J.B. and J.A.N. contributed to revisions.

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Correspondence to Niko Kampman.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Kampman, N., Burnside, N., Shipton, Z. et al. Pulses of carbon dioxide emissions from intracrustal faults following climatic warming. Nature Geosci 5, 352–358 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1451

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