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Persistent earthquake clusters and gaps from slip on irregular faults

Abstract

Earthquake-producing fault systems like the San Andreas fault in California show self-similar structural variation1; earthquakes cluster in space, leaving aseismic gaps between clusters. Whether gaps represent overdue earthquakes or signify diminished risk is a question with which seismic-hazard forecasters wrestle1,2,3,4,5. Here I use spectral analysis of the spatial distribution of seismicity along the San Andreas fault (for earthquakes that are at least 2 in magnitude), which reveals that it obeys a power-law relationship, indicative of self-similarity in clusters across a range of spatial scales. To determine whether the observed clustering of earthquakes is the result of a heterogeneous stress distribution, I use a finite-element method to simulate the motion of two rigid blocks past each other along a model fault surface that shows three-dimensional complexity on the basis of mapped traces of the San Andreas fault. The results indicate that long-term slip on the model fault generates a temporally stable, spatially variable distribution of stress that shows the same power-law relationship as the earthquake distribution. At the highest rates of San Andreas fault slip (40 mm yr−1), stress patterns produced are stable over a minimum of 25,000 years before the model fault system evolves into a new configuration. These results suggest that although gaps are not immune to rupture propagation they are less likely to be nucleation sites for earthquakes.

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Figure 1: California seismicity.
Figure 2: Amplitude spectra of San Andreas fault seismicity.
Figure 3: Finite-element model of a rough fault surface.
Figure 4: Amplitude spectra of modelled differential stress distribution with observed San Andreas fault seismicity.

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Acknowledgements

This work was inspired by a presentation on irregular faults by Jim Dieterich, research by David Marsan and a conversation with Larry Hartge.

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Correspondence to Tom Parsons.

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Parsons, T. Persistent earthquake clusters and gaps from slip on irregular faults. Nature Geosci 1, 59–63 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo.2007.36

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