Article | Published:

Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

Nature Genetics volume 42, pages 937948 (2010) | Download Citation

This article has been updated

Abstract

Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10−8), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.

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Change history

  • 12 October 2011

    In the version of this supplementary file originally posted online, there was an error in the equation shown on page 36. The error has been corrected in this file as of 12 October 2011.

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Acknowledgements

A full list of acknowledgments appears in the Supplementary Note.

Funding was provided by Academy of Finland (10404, 77299, 104781, 114382, 117797, 120315, 121584, 124243, 126775, 126925, 127437, 129255, 129269, 129306, 129494, 129680, 130326, 209072, 210595, 213225, 213506 and 216374); ADA Mentor-Based Postdoctoral Fellowship; Amgen; Agency for Science, Technology and Research of Singapore (A*STAR); ALF/LUA research grant in Gothenburg; Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament); AstraZeneca; Augustinus Foundation; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (241944, 389875, 389891, 389892, 389938, 442915, 442981, 496739, 496688, 552485 and 613672); Australian Research Council (ARC grant DP0770096); Becket Foundation; Biocenter (Finland); Biomedicum Helsinki Foundation; Boston Obesity Nutrition Research Center; British Diabetes Association (1192); British Heart Foundation (97020; PG/02/128); Busselton Population Medical Research Foundation; Cambridge Institute for Medical Research; Cambridge National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre; CamStrad (UK); Cancer Research UK; Centre for Medical Systems Biology (The Netherlands); Centre for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research (The Netherlands); Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government; Contrat Plan Etat Région (France); Danish Centre for Health Technology Assessment; Danish Diabetes Association; Danish Heart Foundation; Danish Pharmaceutical Association; Danish Research Council; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; HE 1446/4-1); Department of Health (UK); Diabetes UK; Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory; Donald W. Reynolds Foundation; Dresden University of Technology Funding Grant; Emil and Vera Cornell Foundation; Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam); Erasmus University (Rotterdam); European Commission (DG XII; QLG1-CT-2000-01643, QLG2-CT-2002-01254, LSHC-CT-2005, LSHG-CT-2006-018947, LSHG-CT-2004-518153, LSH-2006-037593, LSHM-CT-2007-037273, HEALTH-F2-2008-ENGAGE, HEALTH-F4-2007-201413, HEALTH-F4-2007-201550, FP7/2007-2013, 205419, 212111, 245536, SOC 95201408 05F02 and WLRT-2001-01254); Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany) (01AK803, 01EA9401, 01GI0823, 01GI0826, 01GP0209, 01GP0259, 01GS0820, 01GS0823, 01GS0824, 01GS0825, 01GS0830, 01GS0831, 01IG07015, 01KU0903, 01ZZ9603, 01ZZ0103, 01ZZ0403 and 03ZIK012); Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; European Social Fund; Eve Appeal; Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation; Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research; Finnish Foundation for Pediatric Research, Finnish Medical Society; Finska Läkaresällskapet, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, Folkhälsan Research Foundation; Fond Européen pour le Développement Régional (France); Fondation LeDucq (Paris, France); Foundation for Life and Health in Finland; Foundation for Strategic Research (Sweden); Genetic Association Information Network; German Research Council (KFO-152); German National Genome Research Net 'NGFNplus' (FKZ 01GS0823); German Research Center for Environmental Health; Giorgi-Cavaglieri Foundation; GlaxoSmithKline; Göteborg Medical Society; Great Wine Estates Auctions; Gyllenberg Foundation; Health Care Centers in Vasa, Närpes and Korsholm; Healthway, Western Australia; Helmholtz Center Munich; Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hjartavernd (the Icelandic Heart Association); INSERM (France); Ib Henriksen Foundation; Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Klinische Forschung (IZKF) (B27); Jalmari and Rauha Ahokas Foundation; Juho Vainio Foundation; Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF); Karolinska Institute; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Leenaards Foundation; Lundbeck Foundation Centre of Applied Medical Genomics for Personalized Disease Prediction, Prevention and Care (LUCAMP); Lundberg Foundation; Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship; Medical Research Council (UK) (G0000649, G0000934, G9521010D, G0500539, G0600331 and G0601261, PrevMetSyn); Ministry of Cultural Affairs and Social Ministry of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports (The Netherlands); Ministry of Education (Finland); Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (The Netherlands); Ministry of Internal Affairs and Health (Denmark); Ministry of Science, Education and Sport of the Republic of Croatia (216-1080315-0302); Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts Baden-Württemberg; Montreal Heart Institute Foundation; Municipal Health Care Center and Hospital in Jakobstad; Municipality of Rotterdam; Närpes Health Care Foundation; National Cancer Institute; National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre; National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre; National Institute for Health Research comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre; US National Institutes of Health (263-MA-410953, AA07535, AA10248, AA014041, AA13320, AA13321, AA13326, CA047988, CA65725, CA87969, CA49449, CA67262, CA50385, DA12854, DK58845, DK46200, DK062370, DK063491, DK072193, HG002651, HL084729, HHSN268200625226C, HL71981, K23-DK080145, K99-HL094535, M01-RR00425, MH084698, N01-AG12100, NO1-AG12109, N01-HC15103, N01-HC25195, N01-HC35129, N01-HC45133, N01-HC55015, N01-HC55016, N01-HC55018, N01-HC55019, N01-HC55020, N01-N01HC-55021, N01-HC55022, N01-HC55222, N01-HC75150, N01-HC85079, N01-HC85080, N01-HG-65403, N01-HC85081, N01-HC85082, N01-HC85083, N01-HC85084, N01-HC85085, N01-HC85086, N02-HL64278, P30-DK072488, R01-AG031890, R01-DK073490, R01-DK075787, R01DK068336, R01DK075681, R01-HL59367, R01-HL086694, R01-HL087641, R01-HL087647, R01-HL087652, R01-HL087676, R01-HL087679, R01-HL087700, R01-HL088119, R01-MH59160, R01-MH59565, R01-MH59566, R01-MH59571, R01-MH59586, R01-MH59587, R01-MH59588, R01-MH60870, R01-MH60879, R01-MH61675, R01-MH63706, R01-MH67257, R01-MH79469, R01-MH79470, R01-MH81800, RL1-MH083268, UO1-CA098233, U01-DK062418, U01-GM074518, U01-HG004402, U01-HG004399, U01-HL72515, U01-HL080295, U01-HL084756, U54-RR020278, T32-HG00040, UL1-RR025005 and Z01-HG000024); National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD); Netherlands Genomics Initiative/Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (050-060-810); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (904-61-090, 904-61-193, 480-04-004, 400-05-717, SPI 56-464-1419, 175.010.2005.011 and 911-03-012); Nord-Trøndelag County Council; Nordic Center of Excellence in Disease Genetics; Novo Nordisk Foundation; Norwegian Institute of Public Health; Ollqvist Foundation; Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; Organization for the Health Research and Development (10-000-1002); Paavo Nurmi Foundation; Paul Michael Donovan Charitable Foundation; Perklén Foundation; Petrus and Augusta Hedlunds Foundation; Pew Scholar for the Biomedical Sciences; Public Health and Risk Assessment, Health and Consumer Protection (2004310); Research Foundation of Copenhagen County; Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (014-93-015; RIDE2); Robert Dawson Evans Endowment; Royal Society (UK); Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research (CMR, no. A305: 188); Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation; Science Funding programme (UK); Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Söderberg's Foundation; South Tyrol Ministry of Health; South Tyrolean Sparkasse Foundation; State of Bavaria; Stockholm County Council (560183); Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation; Swedish Cancer Society; Swedish Cultural Foundation in Finland; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Swedish Medical Research Council (8691, K2007-66X-20270-01-3, K2010-54X-09894-19-3, K2010-54X-09894-19-3 and 2006-3832); Swedish Research Council; Swedish Society of Medicine; Swiss National Science Foundation (33CSCO-122661, 310000-112552 and 3100AO-116323/1); Torsten and Ragnar Söderberg's Foundation; Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy 1, Région Lorraine, Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy; University Hospital Medical funds to Tampere; University Hospital Oulu, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland (75617); Västra Götaland Foundation; Walter E. Nichols, M.D., and Eleanor Nichols endowments; Wellcome Trust (068545, 072960, 075491, 076113, 077016, 079557, 079895, 081682, 083270, 085301 and 086596); Western Australian DNA Bank; Western Australian Genetic Epidemiology Resource; and Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation.

Author information

Author notes

    • Elizabeth K Speliotes
    • , Cristen J Willer
    • , Sonja I Berndt
    • , Keri L Monda
    • , Gudmar Thorleifsson
    • , Michael Boehnke
    • , Kari Stefansson
    • , Kari E North
    • , Mark I McCarthy
    • , Joel N Hirschhorn
    • , Erik Ingelsson
    •  & Ruth J F Loos

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Elizabeth K Speliotes
    • , Sailaja Vedantam
    • , Candace Guiducci
    • , Brian Thomson
    •  & Joel N Hirschhorn
  2. Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Elizabeth K Speliotes
    •  & Lee M Kaplan
  3. Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Cristen J Willer
    • , Anne U Jackson
    • , Heather M Stringham
    • , Robert J Weyant
    • , Ryan Welch
    • , Laura J Scott
    • , Elizabeth Jewell
    • , Tanya M Teslovich
    • , Gonçalo R Abecasis
    •  & Michael Boehnke
  4. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Sonja I Berndt
    • , Ju-Hyun Park
    • , Jianxin Shi
    • , Stephen J Chanock
    •  & Nilanjan Chatterjee
  5. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Keri L Monda
    •  & Kari E North
  6. deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    • Gudmar Thorleifsson
    • , Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir
    • , G Bragi Walters
    • , Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    •  & Kari Stefansson
  7. Genetics of Complex Traits, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

    • Hana Lango Allen
    • , Michael N Weedon
    • , Andrew R Wood
    • , John R B Perry
    • , Andrew T Hattersley
    •  & Timothy M Frayling
  8. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Cecilia M Lindgren
    • , Reedik Mägi
    • , Joshua C Randall
    • , Teresa Ferreira
    • , Inga Prokopenko
    • , Anuj Goel
    • , Andrew P Morris
    • , Nigel W Rayner
    • , Neil R Robertson
    • , Hugh Watkins
    •  & Mark I McCarthy
  9. Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Cecilia M Lindgren
    • , Inga Prokopenko
    • , Amanda J Bennett
    • , Christopher J Groves
    • , Neelam Hassanali
    • , Matt J Neville
    • , Nigel W Rayner
    • , Neil R Robertson
    • , Fredrik Karpe
    •  & Mark I McCarthy
  10. Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

    • Jian'an Luan
    • , Tuomas O Kilpeläinen
    • , Jing Hua Zhao
    • , Shengxu Li
    • , Ken K Ong
    • , Manjinder S Sandhu
    • , Nicholas J Wareham
    •  & Ruth J F Loos
  11. Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology and Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital,Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Sailaja Vedantam
    •  & Joel N Hirschhorn
  12. Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg, Germany.

    • Thomas W Winkler
    •  & Iris M Heid
  13. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Lu Qi
    • , Tsegaselassie Workalemahu
    • , Frank B Hu
    •  & David J Hunter
  14. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Lu Qi
    • , Frank B Hu
    •  & David J Hunter
  15. Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Iris M Heid
    • , Claudia Lamina
    • , Elisabeth Thiering
    • , Chih-Mei Chen
    • , Christian Gieger
    • , Harald Grallert
    • , Peter Rzehak
    • , Joachim Heinrich
    • , Thomas Illig
    • , Annette Peters
    •  & H-Erich Wichmann
  16. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    • Eleanor Wheeler
    • , Manjinder S Sandhu
    • , Nicole Soranzo
    • , Willem H Ouwehand
    • , Panos Deloukas
    • , Leena Peltonen
    •  & Inês Barroso
  17. Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Ayellet V Segrè
    • , Sekar Kathiresan
    • , Benjamin F Voight
    • , Steven A McCarroll
    •  & Shaun Purcell
  18. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Ayellet V Segrè
    • , James Nemesh
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    • , Sekar Kathiresan
    • , Benjamin F Voight
    •  & Steven A McCarroll
  19. Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Ayellet V Segrè
    • , Benjamin F Voight
    •  & Steven A McCarroll
  20. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center (MC), Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Karol Estrada
    • , Najaf Amin
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Sophie van Wingerden
    • , Albert Hofman
    • , Joyce B J van Meurs
    • , Jacqueline C Witteman
    • , André Uitterlinden
    •  & Cornelia M van Duijn
  21. Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Karol Estrada
    • , Marjolein J Peters
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Joyce B J van Meurs
    • , André Uitterlinden
    •  & M Carola Zillikens
  22. Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Karol Estrada
    • , Marjolein J Peters
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Albert Hofman
    • , Joyce B J van Meurs
    • , Jacqueline C Witteman
    • , André Uitterlinden
    • , M Carola Zillikens
    •  & Cornelia M van Duijn
  23. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Liming Liang
    • , Peter Kraft
    • , Frank B Hu
    •  & David J Hunter
  24. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Liming Liang
    •  & Peter Kraft
  25. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Stefan Gustafsson
    • , Fredrik Wiklund
    • , Henrik Grönberg
    • , Per Hall
    •  & Erik Ingelsson
  26. Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Queensland, Australia.

    • Jian Yang
    •  & Peter M Visscher
  27. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR8199-IBL-Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France.

    • Nabila Bouatia-Naji
    • , Christine Cavalcanti-Proença
    • , Stefan Gaget
    • , Cecile Lecoeur
    • , David Meyre
    • , Vincent Vatin
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  28. University Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.

    • Nabila Bouatia-Naji
    • , Christine Cavalcanti-Proença
    • , Stefan Gaget
    • , Cecile Lecoeur
    • , David Meyre
    • , Vincent Vatin
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  29. Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

    • Tõnu Esko
    • , Helene Alavere
    • , Mari Nelis
    • , Mari-Liis Tammesoo
    •  & Andres Metspalu
  30. Estonian Biocenter, Tartu, Estonia.

    • Tõnu Esko
    • , Mari Nelis
    • , Maris Teder-Laving
    •  & Andres Metspalu
  31. Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

    • Tõnu Esko
    • , Mari Nelis
    • , Maris Teder-Laving
    •  & Andres Metspalu
  32. Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • Mary F Feitosa
    • , Shamika Ketkar
    • , Qunyuan Zhang
    •  & Ingrid B Borecki
  33. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Zoltán Kutalik
    • , Toby Johnson
    • , Sven Bergmann
    • , Diana Marek
    •  & Jacques S Beckmann
  34. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Zoltán Kutalik
    • , Toby Johnson
    • , Sven Bergmann
    •  & Diana Marek
  35. Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

    • Massimo Mangino
    • , Nicole Soranzo
    •  & Timothy D Spector
  36. Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Soumya Raychaudhuri
  37. Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

    • Andre Scherag
    •  & Tanja Boes
  38. Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland.

    • Albert Vernon Smith
    • , Thor Aspelund
    • , Gudny Eiriksdottir
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  39. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    • Albert Vernon Smith
    • , Thor Aspelund
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  40. Comprehensive Cancer Center East, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Katja K Aben
    •  & Lambertus A Kiemeney
  41. Hudson Alpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.

    • Devin M Absher
    •  & Lindsay L Waite
  42. Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

    • Anna L Dixon
  43. Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.

    • Eva Fisher
    •  & Heiner Boeing
  44. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Nicole L Glazer
  45. Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Nicole L Glazer
    •  & David S Siscovick
  46. University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  47. Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  48. Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Nancy L Heard-Costa
    •  & Larry D Atwood
  49. Technical University Munich, Chair of Biomathematics, Garching, Germany.

    • Volker Hoesel
  50. Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit (VU) University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , Eco J C Geus
    • , Gonneke Willemsen
    •  & Dorret I Boomsma
  51. Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.

    • Åsa Johansson
    • , Wilmar Igl
    •  & Ulf Gyllensten
  52. Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

    • Åsa Johansson
  53. Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

    • Toby Johnson
  54. Clinical Pharmacology and Barts and The London Genome Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UK.

    • Toby Johnson
    • , Mark J Caulfield
    •  & Patricia B Munroe
  55. Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

    • Claudia Lamina
  56. National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

    • Miriam F Moffatt
  57. Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Richard H Myers
  58. National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Narisu Narisu
    • , Lori L Bonnycastle
    • , Peter S Chines
    • , Michael R Erdos
    • , Mario A Morken
    • , Amy J Swift
    •  & Francis S Collins
  59. Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universität zu Lübeck, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

    • Michael Preuss
    • , Inke R König
    •  & Andreas Ziegler
  60. Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Samuli Ripatti
    • , Niina Pellikka
    • , Johannes Kettunen
    • , Markus Perola
    • , Kaisa Silander
    • , Ida Surakka
    • , Elisabeth Widen
    • , Jaakko Kaprio
    •  & Leena Peltonen
  61. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Unit of Public Health Genomics, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Samuli Ripatti
    • , Niina Pellikka
    • , Johannes Kettunen
    • , Markus Perola
    • , Kaisa Silander
    • , Ida Surakka
    •  & Leena Peltonen
  62. Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark.

    • Camilla Sandholt
    • , Anette P Gjesing
    • , Torben Hansen
    •  & Oluf Pedersen
  63. MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, Oakfield House, Bristol, UK.

    • Nicholas J Timpson
    • , Ian N M Day
    • , George Davey Smith
    •  & Debbie A Lawlor
  64. Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    • Jonathan P Tyrer
  65. Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Richard M Watanabe
  66. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Richard M Watanabe
    • , Richard N Bergman
    •  & Thomas A Buchanan
  67. Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Charles C White
    • , Julius S Ngwa
    •  & L Adrienne Cupples
  68. University of Milan, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Milano, Italy.

    • Christina Barlassina
    •  & Fabio Macciardi
  69. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Daniel I Chasman
    •  & Paul M Ridker
  70. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Daniel I Chasman
    • , Lee M Kaplan
    •  & Paul M Ridker
  71. Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

    • Matthew N Cooper
    • , Robert W Lawrence
    • , Jennie Hui
    •  & Lyle J Palmer
  72. Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • John-Olov Jansson
  73. University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Milan, Italy.

    • Maria T S Alibrandi
    • , Chiara Lanzani
    •  & Paolo Manunta
  74. Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

    • Peter Almgren
    •  & Leif C Groop
  75. Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Alice M Arnold
    •  & Barbara McKnight
  76. Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Alice M Arnold
  77. INSERM Centre de recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP) Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Public Health U1018, Villejuif, France.

    • Beverley Balkau
  78. University Paris Sud 11, Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé (UMRS) 1018, Villejuif, France.

    • Beverley Balkau
  79. Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT), University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

    • Anthony J Balmforth
    •  & Alistair S Hall
  80. Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

    • Yoav Ben-Shlomo
  81. Institute of Experimental Paediatric Endocrinology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

    • Heike Biebermann
    • , Susanna Wiegand
    •  & Heiko Krude
  82. Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

    • Alexandra I F Blakemore
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  83. Department of Medicine III, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

    • Stefan R Bornstein
    •  & Barbara Ludwig
  84. Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

    • Morris J Brown
  85. Division of Endocrinology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Thomas A Buchanan
  86. Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.

    • Fabio Busonero
    • , Serena Sanna
    •  & Manuela Uda
  87. Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

    • Harry Campbell
    • , Sarah H Wild
    • , Igor Rudan
    •  & James F Wilson
  88. University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, UK.

    • Francesco P Cappuccio
  89. Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Yii-Der Ida Chen
    •  & Talin Haritunians
  90. Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, UK.

    • Robert Clarke
  91. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

    • Lachlan Coin
    • , Paul Elliott
    • , Ulla Sovio
    •  & Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  92. University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.

    • John Connell
  93. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and HTA, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Martin den Heijer
    •  & Lambertus A Kiemeney
  94. Department of Endocrinology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Martin den Heijer
  95. Northshore University Healthsystem, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

    • Jubao Duan
    • , Pablo V Gejman
    •  & Alan R Sanders
  96. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

    • Shah Ebrahim
  97. South Asia Network for Chronic Disease, New Dehli, India.

    • Shah Ebrahim
  98. MRC-Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, London, UK.

    • Paul Elliott
  99. Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics, Institut Municipal D'investigacio Medica and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Roberto Elosua
  100. Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johan G Eriksson
  101. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johan G Eriksson
    •  & Eero Kajantie
  102. Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johan G Eriksson
  103. Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johan G Eriksson
    • , Bo Isomaa
    •  & Tiinamaija Tuomi
  104. Vasa Central Hospital, Vasa, Finland.

    • Johan G Eriksson
  105. Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen-Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano-Bozen, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

    • Maurizio F Facheris
    • , Andrew A Hicks
    • , Irene Pichler
    •  & Peter P Pramstaller
  106. Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy.

    • Maurizio F Facheris
    •  & Peter P Pramstaller
  107. Department of Internal Medicine B, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany.

    • Stephan B Felix
  108. Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity Unit, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ulm, Germany.

    • Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
    •  & Martin Wabitsch
  109. Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

    • Aaron R Folsom
  110. Institut für Klinische Chemie und Laboratoriumsmedizin, Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

    • Nele Friedrich
    • , Sabine Schipf
    •  & Henri Wallaschofski
  111. Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Nelson B Freimer
  112. Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Mao Fu
    • , Alan R Shuldiner
    •  & Jeffrey R O'Connell
  113. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK.

    • Anuj Goel
    •  & Hugh Watkins
  114. Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Philippe Goyette
    • , Guillaume Lettre
    •  & Jean-Claude Tardif
  115. Department of Medicine III, Pathobiochemistry, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

    • Jürgen Gräßler
  116. Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Co., Inc., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Danielle M Greenawalt
  117. Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Anna-Liisa Hartikainen
    •  & Anneli Pouta
  118. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Aki S Havulinna
    • , Pekka Jousilahti
    • , Seppo Koskinen
    •  & Veikko Salomaa
  119. MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

    • Caroline Hayward
    • , Veronique Vitart
    •  & Alan F Wright
  120. Department of Psychiatry and Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • Andrew C Heath
  121. Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

    • Christian Hengstenberg
  122. Regensburg University Medical Center, Innere Medizin II, Regensburg, Germany.

    • Christian Hengstenberg
  123. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

    • Anke Hinney
    • , Susann Scherag
    • , Carla I G Vogel
    •  & Johannes Hebebrand
  124. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

    • Georg Homuth
  125. PathWest Laboratory of Western Australia, Department of Molecular Genetics, J Block, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

    • Jennie Hui
    •  & John P Beilby
  126. Busselton Population Medical Research Foundation Inc., Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

    • Jennie Hui
    • , John P Beilby
    • , Alan L James
    •  & Lyle J Palmer
  127. Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA.

    • Carlos Iribarren
  128. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

    • Carlos Iribarren
  129. Department of Social Services and Health Care, Jakobstad, Finland.

    • Bo Isomaa
  130. Core Genotyping Facility, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

    • Kevin B Jacobs
  131. Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

    • Ivonne Jarick
  132. Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin, Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

    • Ulrich John
  133. Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.

    • Torben Jørgensen
  134. Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Torben Jørgensen
  135. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Population Studies Unit, Turku, Finland.

    • Antti Jula
  136. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Marika Kaakinen
    •  & Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  137. Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Marika Kaakinen
    •  & Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  138. Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS), Helsinki, Finland.

    • Eero Kajantie
  139. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Weight Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Lee M Kaplan
  140. Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Sekar Kathiresan
  141. Framingham Heart Study of the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Boston University, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Sekar Kathiresan
    •  & Christopher J O'Donnell
  142. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Sekar Kathiresan
  143. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Diabetes Prevention Unit, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Leena Kinnunen
    • , Jaakko Tuomilehto
    •  & Timo T Valle
  144. Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Joshua W Knowles
    • , Thomas Quertermous
    •  & Themistocles L Assimes
  145. Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

    • Ivana Kolcic
    • , Ozren Polasek
    •  & Lina Zgaga
  146. Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

    • Peter Kovacs
  147. Department of Medicine, University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

    • Johanna Kuusisto
    •  & Markku Laakso
  148. Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.

    • Kirsti Kvaløy
    • , Kristian Midthjell
    • , Carl G P Platou
    •  & Kristian Hveem
  149. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland.

    • Jaana Laitinen
  150. Institut inter-regional pour la santé (IRSA), La Riche, France.

    • Olivier Lantieri
  151. Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Lenore J Launer
    •  & Tamara B Harris
  152. Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

    • Terho Lehtimäki
  153. Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Guillaume Lettre
    •  & Jean-Claude Tardif
  154. Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

    • Jianjun Liu
  155. Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Marja-Liisa Lokki
  156. Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • Mattias Lorentzon
    •  & Claes Ohlsson
  157. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    • Robert N Luben
    • , Manjinder S Sandhu
    •  & Kay-Tee Khaw
  158. Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

    • Michel Marre
  159. Cardiovascular Genetics Research Unit, Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy 1, Nancy, France.

    • Michel Marre
  160. Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Queensland, Australia.

    • Nicholas G Martin
  161. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) Laboratory, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

    • Wendy L McArdle
  162. Division of Health, Research Board, An Bord Taighde Sláinte, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Anne McCarthy
  163. Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany.

    • Thomas Meitinger
  164. Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Thomas Meitinger
  165. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

    • Olle Melander
    •  & Martin Ridderstråle
  166. Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Queensland, Australia.

    • Grant W Montgomery
  167. Croatian Centre for Global Health, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

    • Rosanda Mulic
    •  & Igor Rudan
  168. Neurogenetics Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Queensland, Australia.

    • Dale R Nyholt
  169. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher J O'Donnell
  170. University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

    • Stephen O'Rahilly
    •  & I Sadaf Farooqi
  171. Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Ben Oostra
  172. Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    • Guillaume Paré
  173. Amgen, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alex N Parker
  174. Finnish Twin Cohort Study, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Kirsi H Pietiläinen
    •  & Jaakko Kaprio
  175. Obesity Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Kirsi H Pietiläinen
    •  & Aila Rissanen
  176. Department of Medicine, Levanger Hospital, The Nord-Trøndelag Health Trust, Levanger, Norway.

    • Carl G P Platou
  177. Gen-Info Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia.

    • Ozren Polasek
  178. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland.

    • Anneli Pouta
    •  & Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  179. Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.

    • Suzanne Rafelt
    •  & Nilesh J Samani
  180. Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

    • Olli Raitakari
  181. The Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

    • Olli Raitakari
  182. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

    • Winfried Rief
  183. Department of Clinical Sciences and Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Aimo Ruokonen
  184. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Munich, Germany.

    • Peter Rzehak
    •  & H-Erich Wichmann
  185. South Karelia Central Hospital, Lappeenranta, Finland.

    • Jouko Saramies
  186. Department of Clinical Sciences and Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Markku J Savolainen
  187. Institut für Community Medicine, Greifswald, Germany.

    • Sabine Schipf
  188. Christian-Albrechts-University, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Institute for Clinical Molecular Biology and Department of Internal Medicine I, Kiel, Germany.

    • Stefan Schreiber
  189. Universität zu Lübeck, Medizinische Klinik II, Lübeck, Germany.

    • Heribert Schunkert
    •  & Jeanette Erdmann
  190. Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Juha Sinisalo
    •  & Markku S Nieminen
  191. Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • David S Siscovick
  192. Department of Psychiatry, Instituut voor Extramuraal Geneeskundig Onderzoek (EMGO) Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Jan H Smit
    •  & Brenda W Penninx
  193. Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    • Jonathan Stephens
    •  & Willem H Ouwehand
  194. National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant, Cambridge Centre, Cambridge, UK.

    • Jonathan Stephens
    •  & Willem H Ouwehand
  195. Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.

    • John R Thompson
    •  & Nilesh J Samani
  196. Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, UK.

    • John R Thompson
  197. Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

    • Anke Tönjes
    •  & Michael Stumvoll
  198. Coordination Centre for Clinical Trials, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

    • Anke Tönjes
  199. Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Tiinamaija Tuomi
  200. Research Program of Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Tiinamaija Tuomi
  201. Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Gert-Jan van Ommen
  202. Center of Medical Systems Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Gert-Jan van Ommen
  203. Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

    • Jorma Viikari
  204. INSERM Cardiovascular Genetics team, Centre Investigation Clinique (CIC) 9501, Nancy, France.

    • Sophie Visvikis-Siest
  205. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.

    • Daniel R Witte
  206. Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

    • Jianfeng Xu
  207. Department of Physiatrics, Lapland Central Hospital, Rovaniemi, Finland.

    • Paavo Zitting
  208. School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

    • John P Beilby
  209. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Heikki V Huikuri
  210. School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

    • Alan L James
  211. Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

    • Mika Kähönen
  212. Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Douglas F Levinson
  213. Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, California, USA.

    • Fabio Macciardi
  214. Leipziger Interdisziplinärer Forschungs-komplex zu molekularen Ursachen umwelt- und lebensstilassoziierter Erkrankungen (LIFE) Study Centre, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

    • Michael Stumvoll
  215. Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Jacques S Beckmann
  216. Human Genetics Center and Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

    • Eric Boerwinkle
  217. Faculty of Health Science, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

    • Torben Hansen
  218. New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

    • Richard B Hayes
  219. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Unit for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Kaprio
  220. NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

    • Fredrik Karpe
    •  & Mark I McCarthy
  221. Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Lambertus A Kiemeney
  222. Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Oluf Pedersen
  223. Faculty of Health Science, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

    • Oluf Pedersen
  224. Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Brenda W Penninx
  225. Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Brenda W Penninx
  226. Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

    • Peter P Pramstaller
  227. Institute for Paediatric Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten-Herdecke, Datteln, Germany.

    • Thomas Reinehr
  228. Department of Medicine III, Prevention and Care of Diabetes, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

    • Peter E H Schwarz
  229. Geriatrics Research and Education Clinical Center, Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Alan R Shuldiner
  230. Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  231. South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinajoki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  232. Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Gérard Waeber
  233. The Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Shaun Purcell
    •  & Leena Peltonen
  234. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Shaun Purcell
  235. Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, California, USA.

    • Eric E Schadt
  236. Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Eric E Schadt
  237. Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • Ingrid B Borecki
  238. Division of Intramural Research, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Caroline S Fox
  239. Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    • Robert C Kaplan
  240. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Karen L Mohlke
  241. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Leena Peltonen
  242. Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • David Schlessinger
  243. Division of Community Health Sciences, St. George's, University of London, London, UK.

    • David P Strachan
  244. Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.

    • H-Erich Wichmann
  245. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

    • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    •  & Kari Stefansson
  246. University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

    • Inês Barroso
  247. Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Kari E North
  248. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Joel N Hirschhorn

Consortia

  1. MAGIC

    On behalf of the MAGIC (Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits Consortium) investigators.

  2. on behalf of Procardis Consortium

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Contributions

A full list of author contributions appears in the Supplementary Note.

Competing interests

I.B. and spouse own stock in Incyte Ltd and GlaxoSmithKline. J.N.H. is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board, Correlagen, Inc. V.H. has received consultancy fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly and Takeda. A.P. is employed by Amgen. K.S., V.S., G.T., U.T. and G.B.W. are employed by deCODE Genetics.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Michael Boehnke or Kari Stefansson or Kari E North or Mark I McCarthy or Joel N Hirschhorn or Erik Ingelsson or Ruth J F Loos.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Tables 1–8, Supplementary Figures 1–4 and Supplementary Note.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.686

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